金曜日, 12月 22, 2017

目次のみ:Introduction to Modern Economic Growth Daron Acemoglu

Introduction to Modern Economic Growth 
Daron Acemoglu 

TABLE OF CONTENTS: 
Preface xv 

Part I: Introduction 

Chapter 1: Economic Growth and Economic Development: The Questions 3 
1.1 Cross-Country Income Differences 3 
1.2 Income and Welfare 7 
1.3 Economic Growth and Income Differences 9 
1.4 Origins of Today's Income Differences and World Economic Growth 11 
1.5 Conditional Convergence 15 
1.6 Correlates of Economic Growth 18 
1.7 From Correlates to Fundamental Causes 19 
1.8 The Agenda 21 
1.9 References and Literature 23 

Chapter 2: The Solow Growth Model 26 
2.1 The Economic Environment of the Basic Solow Model 27 
2.2 The Solow Model in Discrete Time 34 
2.3 Transitional Dynamics in the Discrete-Time Solow Model 43 
2.4 The Solow Model in Continuous Time 47 
2.5 Transitional Dynamics in the Continuous-Time Solow Model 51 
2.6 A First Look at Sustained Growth 55 
2.7 Solow Model with Technological Progress 56 2.8 Comparative Dynamics 67 
2.9 Taking Stock 68 
2.10 References and Literature 69 
2.11 Exercises 71 

Chapter 3: The SolowModel and the Data 77 
3.1 Growth Accounting 77 
3.2 The Solow Model and Regression Analyses 80 
3.3 The Solow Model with Human Capital 85 
3.4 Solow Model and Cross-Country Income Differences: Regression Analyses 90 
3.5 Calibrating Productivity Differences 96 
3.6 Estimating Productivity Differences 100 
3.7 Taking Stock 105 
3.8 References and Literature 106 
3.9 Exercises 107 

Chapter 4: Fundamental Determinants of Differences in Economic Performance 109 
4.1 Proximate versus Fundamental Causes 109 
4.2 Economies of Scale, Population, Technology, and World Growth 112 
4.3 The Four Fundamental Causes 114 
4.4 The Effect of Institutions on Economic Growth 123 
4.5 What Types of Institutions? 136 
4.6 Disease and Development 137 
4.7 Political Economy of Institutions: First Thoughts 140 
4.8 Taking Stock 140 
4.9 References and Literature 141 
4.10 Exercises 143 

Part II: Toward Neoclassical Growth 

Chapter 5: Foundations of Neoclassical Growth 147 
5.1 Preliminaries 147 
5.2 The Representative Household 149 
5.3 Infinite Planning Horizon 156 
5.4 The Representative Firm 158 
5.5 Problem Formulation 160 
5.6 Welfare Theorems 161 
5.7 Proof of the Second Welfare Theorem (Theorem 5.7) * 168 
5.8 Sequential Trading 171 
5.9 Optimal Growth 174 
5.10 Taking Stock 176 
5.11 References and Literature 176 
5.12 Exercises 178 

Chapter 6: Infinite-Horizon Optimization and Dynamic Programming 182 
6.1 Discrete-Time Infinite-Horizon Optimization 182 
6.2 Stationary Dynamic Programming 185 
6.3 Stationary Dynamic Programming Theorems 187 
6.4 The Contraction Mapping Theorem and Applications * 190 
6.5 Proofs of the Main Dynamic Programming Theorems * 194 
6.6 Applications of Stationary Dynamic Programming 201 
6.7 Nonstationary Infinite-Horizon Optimization 211 
6.8 Optimal Growth in Discrete Time 215 
6.9 Competitive Equilibrium Growth 219 
6.10 Computation 221 
6.11 Taking Stock 221 
6.12 References and Literature 222 
6.13 Exercises 223 

Chapter 7: An Introduction to the Theory of Optimal Control 227 
7.1 Variational Arguments 228 
7.2 The Maximum Principle: A First Look 235 
7.3 Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control 240 
7.4 More on Transversality Conditions 250 
7.5 Discounted Infinite-Horizon Optimal Control 253 
7.6 Existence of Solutions, Concavity, and Differentiability * 259 
7.7 A First Look at Optimal Growth in Continuous Time 268 
7.8 The q-Theory of Investment and Saddle-Path Stability 269 
7.9 Taking Stock 274 
7.10 References and Literature 275 
7.11 Exercises 278 

Part III: Neoclassical Growth 

Chapter 8: The Neoclassical Growth Model 287 
8.1 Preferences, Technology, and Demographics 287 
8.2 Characterization of Equilibrium 293 
8.3 Optimal Growth 298 
8.4 Steady-State Equilibrium 300 
8.5 Transitional Dynamics and Uniqueness of Equilibrium 302 
8.6 Neoclassical Growth in Discrete Time 305 
8.7 Technological Change and the Canonical Neoclassical Model 306 
8.8 The Role of Policy 312 
8.9 Comparative Dynamics 313 
8.10 A Quantitative Evaluation 315 
8.11 Extensions 317 
8.12 Taking Stock 317 
8.13 References and Literature 318 
8.14 Exercises 319 

Chapter 9: Growth with Overlapping Generations 327 
9.1 Problems of Infinity 328 
9.2 The Baseline Overlapping Generations Model 329 
9.3 The Canonical Overlapping Generations Model 335 
9.4 Overaccumulation and Pareto Optimality of Competitive Equilibrium in the Overlapping Generations Model 336 
9.5 Role of Social Security in Capital Accumulation 339 
9.6 Overlapping Generations with Impure Altruism 342 
9.7 Overlapping Generations with Perpetual Youth 345 
9.8 Overlapping Generations in Continuous Time 348 
9.9 Taking Stock 353 
9.10 References and Literature 354 
9.11 Exercises 355 

Chapter 10: Human Capital and Economic Growth 359 
10.1 A Simple Separation Theorem 359 
10.2 Schooling Investments and Returns to Education 361 
10.3 The Ben-Porath Model 363 
10.4 Neoclassical Growth with Physical and Human Capital 367 
10.5 Capital-Skill Complementarity in an Overlapping Generations Model 371 
10.6 Physical and Human Capital with Imperfect Labor Markets 374 
10.7 Human Capital Externalities 379 
10.8 The Nelson-Phelps Model of Human Capital 380 
10.9 Taking Stock 382 
10.10 References and Literature 384 
10.11 Exercises 384 

Chapter 11: First-Generation Models of Endogenous Growth 387 
11.1 The AK Model Revisited 388 
11.2 The AK Model with Physical and Human Capital 393 
11.3 The Two-Sector AK Model 395 
11.4 Growth with Externalities 398 
11.5 Taking Stock 402 
11.6 References and Literature 404 
11.7 Exercises 404 

Part IV: Endogenous Technological Change 
  
Chapter 12: Modeling Technological Change 411 
12.1 Different Conceptions of Technology 411 
12.2 Science and Profits 414 
12.3 The Value of Innovation in Partial Equilibrium 416 
12.4 The Dixit-Stiglitz Model and Aggregate Demand Externalities 422 
12.5 Individual R&D Uncertainty and the Stock Market 428 
12.6 Taking Stock 429 
12.7 References and Literature 430 
12.8 Exercises 431 

Chapter 13: Expanding VarietyModels 433 
13.1 The Lab-Equipment Model of Growth with Input Varieties 433 
13.2 Growth with Knowledge Spillovers 444 
13.3 Growth without Scale Effects 446 
13.4 Growth with Expanding Product Varieties 448 
13.5 Taking Stock 452 
13.6 References and Literature 453 
13.7 Exercises 453 

Chapter 14: Models of Schumpeterian Growth 458 
14.1 A Baseline Model of Schumpeterian Growth 459 
14.2 A One-Sector Schumpeterian Growth Model 468 
14.3 Innovation by Incumbents and Entrants 472 
14.4 Step-by-Step Innovations * 479 
14.5 Taking Stock 489 
14.6 References and Literature 490 
14.7 Exercises 491 

Chapter 15: Directed Technological Change 497 
15.1 Importance of Biased Technological Change 498 
15.2 Basics and Definitions 500 
15.3 Baseline Model of Directed Technological Change 503 
15.4 Directed Technological Change with Knowledge Spillovers 514 
15.5 Directed Technological Change without Scale Effects 518 
15.6 Endogenous Labor-Augmenting Technological Change 519 
15.7 Generalizations and Other Applications 522 
15.8 An Alternative Approach to Labor-Augmenting Technological Change* 523 
15.9 Taking Stock 526 
15.10 References and Literature 527 
15.11 Exercises 529 

V: Stochastic PartGrowth 

16: Stochastic Dynamic Programming 537Chapter 
16.1 Dynamic Programming with Expectations 537 
16.2 Proofs of the Stochastic Dynamic Programming Theorems * 544 
16.3 Stochastic Euler Equations 549 
16.4 Generalization to Markov Processes * 552 
16.5 Applications of Stochastic Dynamic Programming 554 
16.6 Taking Stock 561 
16.7 References and Literature 561 
16.8 Exercises 562 

17: Stochastic Models 566ChapterGrowth 
17.1 The Brock-Mirman Model 567 
17.2 Equilibrium under Uncertainty 571Growth 
17.3 Application: Real Business Cycle Models 579 
17.4 with Incomplete Markets: The Bewley Model 583Growth 
17.5 The Overlapping Generations Model with Uncertainty 586 
17.6 Risk, Diversification, and 588Growth 
17.7 Taking Stock 603 
17.8 References and Literature 604 
17.9 Exercises 605 

VI: Technology Diffusion, Trade, and Interdependences Part 

18: Diffusion of Technology 611Chapter 
18.1 Productivity Differences and Technology 611 
18.2 A Benchmark Model of Technology Diffusion 613 
18.3 Technology Diffusion and Endogenous 619Growth 
18.4 Appropriate and Inappropriate Technologies and Productivity Differences 623 
18.5 Contracting Institutions and Technology Adoption 630 
18.6 Taking Stock 642 
18.7 References and Literature 643 
18.8 Exercises 644 

19: Trade and 648ChapterGrowth 
19.1 and Financial Capital Flows 648Growth 
19.2 Why Does Capital Not Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? 653 
19.3 in a Heckscher-Ohlin World 655EconomicGrowth 
19.4 Trade, Specialization, and the World Income Distribution 663 
19.5 Trade, Technology Diffusion, and the Product Cycle 674 
19.6 Trade and Endogenous Technological Change 678 
19.7 Learning-by-Doing, Trade, and 680Growth 
19.8 Taking Stock 684 
19.9 References and Literature 685 
19.10 Exercises 687 

VII: and PartEconomicDevelopmentEconomicGrowth 

20: Structural Change and 697ChapterEconomicGrowth 
20.1 Nonbalanced : The Demand Side 697Growth 
20.2 Nonbalanced : The Supply Side 703Growth 20.3 Agricultural Productivity and Industrialization 715 
20.4 Taking Stock 719 
20.5 References and Literature 720 
20.6 Exercises 721 
21: Structural Transformations and Market Failures Chapter 
in 725Development 

21.1 Financial 726Development 
21.2 Fertility, Mortality, and the Demographic Transition 729 
21.3 Migration, Urbanization, and the Dual Economy 736 
21.4 Distance to the Frontier and Changes in the Organization of Production 744 
21.5 Multiple Equilibria from Aggregate Demand Externalities and the Big Push 752 
21.6 Inequality, Credit Market Imperfections, and Human Capital 758 
21.7 Toward a Unified Theory of and ? 764DevelopmentGrowth 
21.8 Taking Stock 768 
21.9 References and Literature 769 
21.10 Exercises 771 

VIII: The Political Economy of PartGrowth 

22: Institutions, Political Economy, and 781ChapterGrowth 
22.1 The Impact of Institutions on Long-Run 781Development 
22.2 Distributional Conflict and in a Simple Society 784EconomicGrowth 
22.3 The Canonical Cobb-Douglas Model of Distributional Conflict 792 
22.4 Distributional Conflict and Competition 793 
22.5 Subgame Perfect versus Markov Perfect Equilibria 799 
22.6 Inefficient Institutions: A First Pass 802Economic 
22.7 Heterogeneous Preferences, Social Choice, and the Median Voter * 805 
22.8 Distributional Conflict and : Heterogeneity and the Median Voter 814EconomicGrowth 
22.9 The Provision of Public Goods: Weak versus Strong States 817 
22.10 Taking Stock 822 
22.11 References and Literature 823 
22.12 Exercises 825 

23: Political Institutions and 831ChapterEconomicGrowth 
23.1 Political Regimes and 832EconomicGrowth 
23.2 Political Institutions and -Enhancing Policies 834Growth 
23.3 Dynamic Trade-offs 837 
23.4 Understanding Endogenous Political Change 850 
23.5 Taking Stock 856 
23.6 References and Literature 857 
23.7 Exercises 858 
Epilogue: Mechanics and Causes of 861EconomicGrowth 
What Have We Learned? 861 
A Possible Perspective on and Stagnation over the Past 200 Years 864Growth 
Many Remaining 872Questions 

IX: Mathematical Appendixes Part 

Appendix A: Odds and Ends in Real Analysis and Applications 
to Optimization 877 
A. Distances and Metric Spaces 8781 
A.2 Mappings, Functions, Sequences, Nets, and Continuity 880 
A.3 A Minimal Amount of Topology: Continuity and Compactness * 885 
A.4 The Product Topology * 889 
A.5 Absolute Continuity and Equicontinuity * 891 
A.6 Correspondences and Berge's Maximum Theorem 894 
A.7 Convexity, Concavity, Quasi-Concavity, and Fixed Points 898 
A.8 Differentiation, Taylor Series, and the Mean Value Theorem 900 
A.9 Functions of Several Variables and the Inverse and Implicit Function 
Theorems 904 
A.10 Separation Theorems * 907 
A.11 Constrained Optimization 910 
A.12 Exercises 915 Appendix B: Review of Ordinary Differential Equations 917 

B. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 9171 B.2 Some Basic Results on Integrals 918 
B.3 Linear Differential Equations 920 
B.4 Solutions to Linear First-Order Differential Equations 921 
B.5 Systems of Linear Differential Equations 924 
B.6 Local Analysis and Stability of Nonlinear Differential Equations 926 
B.7 Separable and Exact Differential Equations 927 
B.8 Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions 929 
B.9 Continuity and Differentiability of Solutions 930 
B.10 Difference Equations 930 
B.11 Exercises 932 

Appendix C: Brief Review of Dynamic Games 934 
C. Basic Definitions 9341 
C.2 Some Basic Results 937 
C.3 Application: Repeated Games with Perfect Observability 941 
C.4 Exercises 942 

Appendix D: List of Theorems 944 
2 944Chapter 
5 944Chapter 
6 944Chapter 
7 945Chapter 
10 945Chapter 
16 945Chapter 
22 946Chapter 

Appendix A 946 
Appendix B 947 
Appendix C 947 
References 949 
Name Index 971 
Subject Index 977




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