木曜日, 5月 11, 2017

The Dharanis,The Sutras(禅インド関連サブインデックス)


Manual of Zen Buddhism: II. The Dharanis

http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/mzb/mzb02.htm


Manual of Zen Buddhism: III. The Sutras

http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/mzb/mzb03.htm

Manual of Zen Buddhism by D.T. Suzuki 1935 便覧:解読 

The Dharanis,The Sutras(禅インド関連サブインデックス)

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/05/the-sutras.html@

II. THE DHARANIS 
1. Dharani of Removing Disasters 消災呪
2. Dharani of the Great Compassionate One 大悲心陀羅尼
3. Dharani of the Victorious Buddha-Crown 仏頂尊勝陀羅尼

III. THE SUTRAS 
1. The Prajnaparamita-hridaya-sutra, or Shingyo (complete) 般若心経
2. The Kwannongyo, or “Samantamukha Parivarta” (complete) 観音経
3. The Kongokyo, or Vajracchedika (the first half and extracts from the second half) 金剛経
4. The Lankavatara Sutra, or Ryogakyo (extracts) 楞伽経
5. The Ryogonkyo, or Surangama Sutra (résumé) 楞厳経

仏説摩訶般若波羅蜜多心経:改訂版 
http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2012/01/blog-post_05.html
『法華経』:文底内証の寿量品たる「一品二半」(漢訳/訓読)
http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2012/12/blog-post_22.html?m=0

NAMs出版プロジェクト: 金剛経 THE KONGOKYO OR DIAMOND SUTRA

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/05/the-kongokyo-or-diamond-sutra.html

 The Lankavatara Sutra, or Ryogakyo (extracts) 楞伽経

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/05/the-lankavatara-sutra-or-ryogakyo.html


大蔵経データベース



Manual of Zen Buddhism: II. The Dharanis

http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/mzb/mzb02.htm

II. THE DHARANIS

Properly speaking, the dharani has no legitimate place in Zen. That it has nevertheless crept into its daily service is clue to the general characteristics of Chinese Buddhism of the Sung dynasty, when the Japanese Zen masters visited China and imported it as they found it then, together with the Shingon elements of Chinese Zen. In China the Shingon did not thrive very long but left its traces in Zen.

Dharani, the root of which is dhr, "to hold" or "to convey", is ordinarily translated by the Chinese tsung-ch'ih, "general holder", at neng-ch'ih, "that which holds". A dharani is considered as holding magical power in it or bearing deep meaning. When it is pronounced, whatever evil spirits there are ready to interfere with the spiritual effect of a ritual, are kept away from it.

In the following pages the three most frequently read dharanis are given. When translated they convey no intelligent signification. They mostly consist of invocations and exclamations. The invocation is an appeal to the higher powers, and the exclamation is to frighten away the evil spirits. That the practical result of these utterances is not to be judged objectively goes without saying.

THE DHARANIS


2:1
Dharani of Removing Disasters 消災呪

【和訳】
あまねき諸仏と無上の諸教誠に帰依したてまつる。殊には、ああ、虚空よ、虚空よ、消滅したまえ、消滅したまえ。
まさに然り。照燿したまえ、照燿したまえ。
速かに広く照燿したまえ。速かに発起したまえ。
諸星よ、速かに出現せよ。息災祥光のために成就あれ。
1981

〔和 訳〕
「破壊しがたい(絶対的な)教示者である一切の諸仏に帰命致します。すなわち,オーン。虚空よ,虚空よ。破壊したまえ,破壊したまえ(または,喰い尽くしたまえ,喰い尽くしたまえ)。フーン,フーン。輝きたまえ,輝きたまえ。大いに輝きたまえ,大いに輝きたまえ,とどまりたまえ, とどまりたまえ。星よ,星よ。出現したまえ,出現したまえ。平和の繁栄のために(または,消災吉祥のために)。スヴァーハー。」1998

I

DHARANI OF REMOVING DISASTERS

Adoration to all the Buddhas! Adoration to the Teaching that knows no obstructions!
Thus: Om! Khya khya khyahi khyahi (speak, speak)!
Hum hum!
Jvala jvala prajvala prajvala (blaze, blaze)!
Tistha tistha (up, up)!
Stri Stri (?)!
Sphata (burst, burst)!
One who is quiescent!
To the glorious one, hail!

災害を救うためのダーラーニ

すべての仏への崇拝!障害物を知らない教えに敬意を表します!従って:Om! Khya khya khyahi khyahi(話す、話す)!ハムハム!Jvala jvala prajvala prajvala(炎、炎)!Tistha tistha(アップ、アップ)!Stri Stri(?)!スファタ(バースト、バースト)!静止している人!栄光の人に、雹!

Disstrsを除去するテラ Dorsnは、すべてのBuddhsでした! DorsnはKNAUSませんObstrkshnsの下で教えました! したがって:オム! KYA KYA Kyahi Kyahi(話す、話します) 私たち! 炎炎prajval prajval(BLEZ、BLEZ)! テースタテースタ(サブサブ) 女性(?)! SFTA(バースト、バースト) 一つのこのKviescentt! だから、栄光の一つは、移動!


2:2

Dharani of the Great Compassionate One 大悲心陀羅尼

〔和 訳〕「(仏。法。僧の)三宝に帰依致します。大慈悲心を持てる聖なる観自在菩薩摩訂薩に帰依致します。一切の畏怖において庇護をなして下さる(観自在菩薩に)帰依致します。彼に帰依したのちに,私は聖なる観自在菩薩の威神力をもつ「青頸」と呼ばれるこの本質(以下の真言),すなわち,一切の望ましきものを成就せしめ,光輝ある(吉祥な),一切の悪鬼鬼神にとって打ち勝ち難き,しかも,(迷いの)生存の世界を浄化せしめる真言を読誦致しましょう。

すなわち,以下のごとし。オーン。光明よ。光明のごとき智恵をもつものよ。世間を超越せしものよ。オオ,ハリよ。偉大なる菩薩(聖なる観自在菩薩)よ。真言を憶念したまえ,憶念したまえ。(憶念する)行為をなしたまえ,なしたまえ。(真言を憶念する行為を)成就したまえ,成就したまえ。(真言を)保持したまえ,保持したまえ。勝利者よ。偉大なる勝利者よ。(真言を)保持したまえ,保持したまえ。最勝なる大地の主(聖なる観自在菩薩)よ。発動したまえ,発動したまえ。汚れなきものよ。汚れを離れたるものよ。汚れなき身体をもつものよ。来りたまえ,来りたまえ。世界の主(聖なる観自在菩薩)よ。貪りという毒害を滅除したまえ(または,貪りという毒害を滅除するものよ)。怒りという毒害を滅除したまえ(または,怒りという毒害を滅除するものよ)。愚痴妄想による心の動揺という毒害を滅除したまえ(または,愚痴妄想による心の動揺という毒害を滅除するものよ)。取り去りたまえ,取り去りたまえ。汚れを取り去りたまえ。ハリよ。流れ出でたまえ,流れ出でたまえ。現れ出でたまえ,現れ出でたまえ。進み出でたまえ,進み出でたまえ。正覚したまえ,正覚したまえ。正覚せさせたまえ,正覚せさせたまえ。慈悲深き青頸(聖なる観自在菩薩)よ。(見んと)欲するものに対し見ることを歓喜せしむるものよ(不空訳),スヴァーハー。(あるいは,欲望を破壊することを歓喜せしむるものよ,スヴァーハー)。(自らの望みを)成就せしものに,スヴァーハー。偉大なる成就者に,スヴァーハー。(自らの望みを)成就した,ヨーガ(の行法)に自在なるものに,スヴァーハー。青頸(ニーラカンタ)に,スヴァーハー。猪の顔をもち,またライオンの顔をもつものに, スヴァーハー(不空訳)。一切の大成就者に, スヴァーハー。蓮華を手にもつものに, スヴァーハー(不空訳)。円輪(という武器)で戦えるものに,スヴァーハー。法螺員の音において,開悟せしむるものに,スヴァーハー(不空訳)(または,法螺員の音を知らしむるものよ,スヴァーハー)。大きなこん棒を携えしものに, スヴァーハー(不空訳)。左肩の方向にまします黒色の勝利者に, スヴァーハー(不空訳)。虎の皮を衣服とするものに, スヴァーハー(不空訳)。(仏ヽ法。僧の)三宝に帰依致します。聖なる観自在菩薩に帰依致します。(二切の望みは)成就すべし。(上述の)真言の句に,スヴァーハー。」

1998


【和訳】

(仏法僧の)三宝に帰依したてまつる。聖観自在菩薩、大菩薩、大悲尊に帰依したてまつる。
 おお、すべての怖長の中にあって、(衆生を)救済したまう彼の尊に帰依したてまつれば、ここに聖観自在尊の真実相は(出現する)。
 青孔雀尊よ。帰依したてまつる。われは尊の心奥に帰入せん。(それは)すべての利益を成就し、讃美し、(鬼神も)打ち勝つことができない。すべての生類の生きる道の浄化にわれは没頭せん。すなわち、(その秘児を示せば)、おお、(衆生を)みそなわす尊よ。みそなわす智慧の尊よ。世間を超越する尊よ。いざいざ(衆生を)運載したまえ。大菩薩よ憶念したまえ。憶念したまえ。正念正智したまえ。正念正智したまえ。悪業を消滅したまえ。消滅したまえ。制御したまえ。制御したまえ。
(摩障に)勝利の尊よ。大勝利の尊よ。(真理を)受持したまえ。受持したまえ。 受持自在尊よ。 奮発したまえ.奮発したまえ。塵垢解脱尊よ。無垢解脱尊よ。召請したてまつる。召請したてまつる。
 世自在尊よ。貪欲の毒を消除したまえ。瞑恙(自分の心に違うものを怒り恨むこと)の毒を消除したまえ。愚痴動揺の毒を消除したまえ。長るべし。畏るべし。塵垢よ。長るべし。畏るべし。塵垢よ。畏るべし、長るべし。除去したまえ。
 世界創造主神よ。行動したまえ。行動したまえ。(濁世に)止りたまえ。上りたまえ。(甘露―不死の水を)流出したまえ。流出したまえ。成覚したまえ。成覚したまえ。速かに成覚せじめたまえ。
 いつくしみの(心の)青孔雀尊よ。愛欲粉砕に奮起せじめてあり。(神通力)成就のために祥福あれ。大成就のために祥福あれ。成就禅定自在尊は祥福あれ。青孔雀尊に祥福あれ。猪の顔の尊に祥福あれ。獅子の顔の尊に祥福あれ。蓮華を手にする尊に祥福あれ。投輪をもって戦う尊に祥福あれ。
 法螺貝の音声で(衆生を)めざめさす尊に祥福あれ。大きな根棒を持つ尊に祥福あれ。左肩尊位に立つ黒色クリシュナ神に勝つ尊に祥福あれ。虎皮を被着する尊に祥福あれ。
 三宝に帰依したてまつる。聖観盲在尊に帰依したてまつる。真言句成就のために祥福あれ。大悲心ダラニ。
1981



II

DHARANI OF THE GREAT COMPASSIONATE ONE

Adoration to the Triple Treasure!
Adoration to Avalokitesvara the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is the great compassionate one!
Om, to the one who performs a leap beyond all fears!
Having adored him, may I enter into the heart of the blue-necked one known as the noble adorable Avalokitesvara! It means the completing of all meaning, it is pure, it is that which makes all beings victorious and cleanses the path of existence.
Thus:
Om, the seer, the world-transcending one!
O Hari the Mahabodhisattva!
All, all!
Defilement, defilement!
The earth, the earth!
It is the heart.
Do, do the work!
Hold fast, hold fast! O great victor!
Hold on, hold on! I hold on.
To Indra the creator I
Move, move, my defilement-free seal!
Come, come!
Hear, hear!
A joy springs up in me!
Speak, speak! Directing!
Hulu, hulu, mala, hulu, hulu, hile!
Sara, Sara! siri, siri! suru, suru!
Be awakened, be awakened!
Have awakened, have awakened!
O merciful one, blue-necked one!
Of daring ones, to the joyous, hail!
To the successful one, hail!
To the great successful one, hail!
To the one who has attained mastery in the discipline, hail!
To the blue-necked one, hail!
To the boar-faced one, hail!
To the one with a lion's head and face, hail!
To the one who holds a weapon in his hand, hail!
To the one who holds a wheel in his hand, hail!
To the one who holds a lotus in his hand, hail!
To the blue-necked far-causing one, hail!
To the beneficient one referred to in this Dharani beginning with "Namah," hail!
Adoration to the Triple Treasure!
Adoration to Avalokitesvara!
Hail!
May these [prayers] be successful!
To this magical formula, hail!


2:3
Dharani of the Victorious Buddha-Crown 仏頂尊勝陀羅尼

仏頂尊勝陀羅尼 - つらつら日暮らしWiki〈曹洞宗関連用語集〉

http://seesaawiki.jp/w/turatura/d/%CA%A9%C4%BA%C2%BA%BE%A1%C2%CB%CD%E5%C6%F4
【定義】

『仏頂尊勝陀羅尼経』に収録される陀羅尼。略して「尊勝陀羅尼」ともいう。曹洞宗では日中諷経で読まれる陀羅尼。経文には21回読めば大涅槃を得る等の功徳があると説き、後の曹洞宗では7回読むという行法が確立された。また、特に信施の罪を消すともいう。
陀羅尼の功能、目出たくこそ覚ゆれ。殊に尊勝陀羅尼を、もし毎日に二十一反誦すれば、極楽に往生し、虚空を鉢として受くとも、信施の消ゆべき由、説かれたり。世、こぞて誦すれば、僧宝殊に頼むべき真言なり。 無住道曉『沙石集』巻9

【内容】

陀羅尼の内容は以下の通りである。世尊が、ジェータバナ林給孤独園にいる時に、三十三天善法堂に善住という天子がいた。しかし、この天子は、死んで7日後に畜生に生まれ変わるというお告げを聞いたため、非常に驚き、そのことを帝釈天に告げた。帝釈天は釈尊にそのことを相談した時に、授けられたのが当陀羅尼である。

この陀羅尼は、聞いて憶念し、読誦し、思惟するならば、一切の業障を除くという。唐の五台山に文殊菩薩を拝謁しに来たインドの仏陀波利は、山中で一心に祈ったところ1人の老人が出現した。老人は、中国の人々は在家から僧侶に至るまで悪業を重ねていて、この者達を救うためには、『仏頂尊称陀羅尼』を将来して中国に広めるべきだと述べた。仏陀波利はわざわざインドに戻り、その後また中国に来て翻訳したという。更に、宮中で独占された時も、わざわざそこから取り戻して世に広めたという。

中国では相当に読まれたようで、異訳や註釈書も多い。

第3章 仏頂尊勝陀羅
〔和訳〕「世尊(すなわち,十方)三世において最も勝れた仏陀世尊に帰依いたします。すなわち, オ~ン。浄めたまえ,浄めたまえ。全く平等にして周く逓在する光明の輝き(拡がり)によつて,六道の奥底は悩)(までをも照らす)本性の清浄なるものよ。善逝(仏陀)の殊妙なる言葉という甘露水の灌頂(すなわち)偉大なる真言の諸句によつて, 私を灌頂したまえ。与えたまぇ,与えたまえ,(更に寿命を)。寿命を保持するものよ。浄めたまえ,浄めたまえ。虚空の如く(本性の)清浄なるものよ。清浄なる仏頂尊勝尊よ。千の光明によつて鼓舞されしものよ。~切の如来(仏)を直視するものよ。六波羅蜜を完遂せしものよ。~切の如来の本質である加護(の不可思議力)によつて加護されしものよ。(~切の如来の悟境・功徳・誓願をあらわす)偉大なる印相よ。金岡1身(金剛1杵のごとき不壊なる身体)を備えたる清浄なるものよ。~切の障害・恐怖・(三)悪道(において)清浄なるものよ。(~切の障害・恐怖。悪道を)回避せしめたまえ。寿命の清浄なるものよ,(衆生済度をする仏の)誓願によつて加護されしものよ。宝珠よ,宝珠よ,大宝珠よ。真如(ありのままであること=真実)実際(極限的真理)によつて清浄なるものよ。開顕したる覚知によつて清浄なるものよ。勝利したまえ,勝利したまえ。人いに勝利したまえ,大いに勝利したまえ。憶念したまえ,憶念したまえ。~切の諸仏に加護されし清浄なるものよ。金岡1よ。金剛を胎とするものよ。私と一切の生きとし/1_けるものの身体は金岡1となれよかし。身体の完全に清浄なるものよ。~切趣(六道)において完全に清浄なるものよ。しかして,~切の如来は私に安楽を与えたまえ。~切の如来の安慰によりて加護されしものよ。悟りたまえ,悟りたまえ。よく悟りたまえ,ょく悟りたまえ。悟らせたまえ,悟らせたまえ。よく悟らせたまえ,よく悟らせたまえ。遍満する(光明によりて)清浄なるものよ。~切の如来の本質である加l護(の不可思議力)によりて加護されし,偉大なる印相よ。スヴァーハー(めでたし)。」1998


【和訳】
三世中最も殊勝なる世尊・仏陀世尊に礼したてまつる。(第一帰敬尊徳門)即ちオーン。(第二影表法身門)
甚平等にして、地獄の底まで普照するを自性とする清浄尊よ。(悪業を)除き除きて浄化したまえ。(第二浄除悪趣門)
われに灌頂したまえ。善逝の妙言説たる甘露灌頂の大真言句をもって、(涅槃に)導き到らしめたまえ。(第四善明灌頂門)
無量寿尊よ。浄めたまえ。浄めたまえ。虚空遍浄尊よ。仏頂最勝遍浄尊よ。衆生(の昏睡)を警覚せしむる千光明尊よ。
 一切如来の仰ぎ見る尊よ。(布施。持戒。忍辱・精進。禅定・智慧の)六波羅蜜の行を完成せし尊よ。
 一切如来の心真言の加持力によって加持される尊よ。広く衆生の成仏を計る尊よ。金剛身に集成されたる遍浄尊よ。 一切の惑障・怖長。悪趣を浄化する尊よ。(第五神力加持門)
転迷開悟せじめたまえ。慧命清浄尊よ。2切如来の)本誓に加持されたる尊よ。宝珠中の宝珠尊よ。大宝珠尊よ。(第六寿命増長門)
真如実際に遍浄なる尊よ。開敷せる仏智による清浄尊よ。撃て撃て(悪魔を)。催け推け(怨敵を)。(われらを)憶持憶念したまえ。(第七定慧相応門)
一切仏智に加持される清浄尊よ。金剛尊よ。金剛蔵尊よ。われらと一切衆生の身体を金剛身たらしめたまえ。身体極清浄尊よ。(第八金剛供養門)
一切生趣を全く清浄ならしむる尊よ。わが身を極清浄ならしめたまえ。また一切如来はわれを激励したまえ。 一切如来に激励護持されたる尊よ。成覚したまえ。成覚したまえ。みそなわしたまえ。
みそなわしたまえ。成覚せじめたまえ。成覚せじめたまえ。成仏せじめたまえ。成仏せじめたまえ(それぞれに)。
普遍清浄尊よ。 一切如来の心真言の加持力に加持せられ、広く衆生の成仏を計る尊よ。(第九普証清浄門)
成就あれ。(第十成就涅槃門)
1981

III

DHARANI OF THE VICTORIOUS BUDDHA-CROWN

Adoration to the Blessed One who is the most excellent one in the triple world!
Adoration to the Enlightened One, to the Blessed One!
Namely:
Om! Cleanse [us], cleanse [us]! O one who is always impartial! One who, being in possession of all-pervading, all-illuminating light, is pure in his self-nature, cleansed of the darkness of the five paths of existence!
Baptize us, O Sugata, with an immortal baptism which consists of the best words, of the great true phrases!
Remove disasters, remove disasters, O one who holds an eternal life!
Cleanse us, cleanse us, O one who is as pure as the sky!
O one who is as pure as the victorious Buddha-crown!
O one who is inflamed with a thousand rays of light!
O all the Tathagatas who look over [the entire world]!
O one who is perfect in the Six Paramitas!
O one who holds the great seal empowered with the spiritual power which emanates from the heart of every Tathagata!
O one whose body is as hard and pure as Vajra!
O one who is thoroughly pure, cleansed of all impediments, all fears, and all the evil paths!
Turn us away [from evils] O one who enjoys a purified life!
O one who empowers us with [the power of] the original covenant! O jewel, jewel, the great jewel! O Suchness which is reality-limit and absolute purity!
O one who is pure in his evolved enlightenment!
Be victorious, be victorious, be ever victorious, be ever victorious!
Bear in mind, bear in mind!
O one who is pure being empowered by all Buddhas!
O Vajragarbha who holds the Vajra! Let my body be like Vajra! Let those of all beings too be like Vajra!
O one who is in possession of an absolutely pure body! O one who is absolutely pure from all the paths of existence! And let me be consoled by all the Tathagatas!
O one who is empowered with the consoling power of all the Tathagatas!
Be enlightened, be enlightened, be ever enlightened, be ever enlightened!
Have them enlightened, have them enlightened, have them ever enlightened, have them ever enlightened!
O one who is most pure in a most thoroughgoing way!
O one who holds a great seal empowered with the spiritual power which emanates from the heart of every Tathagata!
Hail!



Manual of Zen Buddhism: III. The Sutras

http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/mzb/mzb03.htm

III. THE SUTRAS

The sutras most read in Zen are the Shingyo (Prajnaparamitahridaya), the Kwannongyo (Samantamukha-parivarta), and the Kongokyo(Vajracchedika). The Shingyo being the shortest is read on almost all occasions. The Ryoga (Lankavatara) is historically significant, but being difficult to understand is very little studied nowadays by followers of Zen. For further information see the author's works on the sutra. The Ryogon(Suramgama) is not so neglected as the Ryoga. It is full of deep thoughts, and was studied very much more in China than in Japan. There are some more sutras of the Mahayana school with which Zen students will do well to become better acquainted, for example, the Kongosammaikyo(Vajrasamadhi), the Yengakukyo (Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment), the Yuimakyo (Vimalakirti-sutra), and the Hannyakyo (Prajnaparamita). None of them have been translated into English, except the Yuima which is difficult to obtain now.

THE SUTRAS


3:1
The Prajnaparamita-hridaya-sutra, or Shingyo (complete) 般若心経

I

ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE SHINGYO

When[1] the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara was engaged in the practice of the deep Prajnaparamita, he perceived that there are the five Skandhas;[2] and these he saw in their self-nature to be empty.[3]

"O Sariputra, form is here emptiness,[4] emptiness is form; form is no other than emptiness, emptiness is no other than form; that which is form is emptiness, that which is emptiness is form. The same can be said of sensation, thought, confection, and consciousness.

"O Sariputra, all things here are characterized with emptiness: they are not born, they are not annihilated; they are not tainted, they are not immaculate; they do not increase, they do not decrease. Therefore, O Sariputra, in emptiness there is no form, no sensation, no thought, no confection, no consciousness; no eye,[5] ear, nose, tongue, body, mind; no form,[6] sound, colour, taste, touch, objects; no Dhatu of vision,[7] till we come to[8] no Dhatu of consciousness; there is no knowledge, no ignorance," till we come to there is no old age and death, no extinction of old age and death; there is no suffering,[10] no accumulation, no annihilation, no path; there is no knowledge, no attainment, [and] no realization,[*] because there is no attainment. In the mind of the Bodhisattva who dwells depending on the Prajnaparamita there are no obstacles;[+] and, going beyond the perverted views, he reaches final Nirvana. All the Buddhas of the past, present, and future, depending on the Prajnaparamita, attain to the highest perfect enlightenment.

"Therefore, one ought to know that the Prajnaparamita is the great Mantram, the Mantram of great wisdom, the highest Mantram, the peerless Mantram, which is capable of allaying all pain; it is truth because it is not falsehood: this is the Mantram proclaimed in the Praynaparamita. It runs: 'Gate, gate, Paragate, parasamgate, bodhi, svaha!' (O Bodhi, gone, gone, gone to the other shore, landed at the other shore , Svaha!)"

NOTES

1 There are two texts with the title of The Hridaya: the one is known as the Shorter and the other the Larger. The one printed above is the shorter sutra in general use in Japan and China.

The opening passage in the larger text in Sanskrit and Tibetan, which is missing in the shorter one, is as follows: [The Tibetan has this additional passage: "Adoration to the Prajnaparamita, which is beyond words, thought, and praise, whose

[* Nabhisamayah is missing in the Chinese translations as well as in the Horyuji MS.

+ For varana all the Chinese have "obstacle", and this is in full accord with the teaching of the Prajnaparamita. Max Muller's rendering, "envelop", is not good.]

self-nature is, like unto space, neither created nor destroyed, which is a state of wisdom and morality evident to our inner consciousness, and which is the mother of all Excellent Ones of the past, present, and future".] "Thus I heard. At one time World-honoured One dwelt at Rajagriha, on the Mount of the Vulture, together with a large number of Bhikshus and a large number of Bodhisattvas. At that time the World-honoured One was absorbed in a Samadhi (Meditation) known as Deep Enlightenment. And at the same moment the Great Bodhisattva Aryavalokitesvara was practising himself in the deep Prajnaparamita."

The concluding passage, which is also missing in the shorter text, runs as follows:

"O Sariputra, thus should the Bodhisattva practise himself in the deep Prajnaparamita. At that moment, the World-honoured One rose from the Samadhi and gave approval to the Great Bodhisattva Aryavalokitesvara, saying: Well done, well done, noble son! so it is! so should the practice of the deep Prajnaparamita be carried on. As it has been preached by you, it is applauded by Tathagatas and Arhats. Thus spoke the World-honoured One with joyful heart. The venerable Sariputra and the Great Bodhisattva Aryavalokitesvara together with the whole assemblage, and the world of Gods, Men, Asuras, and Gandharvas, all praised the speech of the World-honoured One."

2. From the modern scientific point of view, the conception of Skandha seems to be too vague and indefinite. But we must remember that the Buddhist principle of analysis is not derived from mere scientific interest; it aims at saving us from the idea of an ultimate individual reality which is imagined to exist as such for all the time to come. For when this idea is adhered to as final, the error of attachment is committed, and it is this attachment that forever enslaves us to the tyranny of external things. The five Skandhas ("aggregates" or "elements") are form (rupam), sensation or sense-perception (vedana), thought (samjna), confection or conformation (samskara), and consciousness (vijnana). The first Skandha is the material world or the materiality of things, while the remaining four Skandhas belong to the mind. Vedana is what we get through our senses; samjna corresponds to thought in its broadest sense, or that which mind elaborates; samskara is a very difficult term and there is no exact English equivalent; it means something that gives form, formative principle; vijnana is consciousness or mentation. There arc six forms of mentation, distinguishable as seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and thinking.

3. Hsuan-chuang's translation has this added: "He was delivered from all suffering and misery."

4. "Empty" (sunya) or "emptiness" (sunyata) is one of the most important notions in Mahayana philosophy and at the same time the most puzzling for non-Buddhist readers to comprehend. Emptiness does not mean "relativity", or "phenomenality", or "nothingness", but rather means the Absolute, or something of transcendental nature, although this rendering is also misleading as we shall see later. When Buddhists declare all things to be empty, they are not advocating a nihilistic view; on the contrary an ultimate reality is hinted at, which cannot be subsumed under the categories of logic. With them, to proclaim the conditionality of things is to point to the existence of something altogether unconditioned and transcendent of all determination. Sunyata may thus often be most appropriately rendered by the Absolute. When the sutra says that the five Skandhas have the character of emptiness, or that in emptiness there is neither creation nor destruction, neither defilement nor immaculacy, etc., the sense is: no limiting qualities are to be attributed to the Absolute; while it is immanent in all concrete and particular objects, it is not in itself definable. Universal negation, therefore, in the philosophy of Prajna is an inevitable outcome.

5. No eye, no ear, etc., refer to the six senses. In Buddhist philosophy, mind (manovijnana) is the special sense-organ for the apprehension of dharma, or objects of thought.

6. No form, no sound, etc., are the six qualities of the external world, which become objects of the six senses.

7. "Dhatu of vision etc." refer to the eighteen Dhatus or elements of existence, which include the six senses (indriya), the six qualities (vishaya), and the six consciousnesses (vijnana).

8. "Till we come to" (yavat in Sanskrit, and nai chih in Chinese) is quite frequently met with in Buddhist literature to avoid repetition of well-known subjects. These classifications may seem somewhat confusing and overlapping.

9. "There is no knowledge, no ignorance, etc." is the wholesale denial of the Twelvefold Chain of Causation (pratityasamutpada), which are ignorance (avidya), deed (samskara), consciousness (vijnana), name and form (namarupa), six sense-organs (sadayatana), contact (sparsa), sense-perception (vedana), desire (trishna), attachment (upadana), being (bhava), birth (jati), and old age and death (jaramarana). This Chain of Twelve has been a subject of much discussion among Buddhist scholars.

10. The allusion is of course to the Fourfold Noble Truth (satya): 1. Life is suffering (duhkha); 2. Because of the accumulation (samudaya) of evil karma; 3. The cause of suffering can be annihilated (nirodha); 4. And for this there is the path (marga).


3:2

The Kwannongyo, or “Samantamukha Parivarta” (complete) 観音経

II

THE KWANNON SUTRA[1]

At that time Mujinni[2] Bosatsu rose from his seat, and, baring his right shoulder, turned, with his hands folded, towards the Buddha, and said this: World-honoured One, for what reason is Kwanzeon Bosatsu so named?

The Buddha said to Mujinni Bosatsu: Good man, when those innumerable numbers of beings--hundred-thousands of myriads of kotis of them--who are suffering all kinds of annoyances, hearing of this Kwanzeon Bosatsu, will utter his name with singleness of mind, they will instantly hear his voice and be released.

Even when people fall into a great fire, if they hold the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu, the fire will not scorch them because of the spiritual power of this Bosatsu. When they are

[1. Generally known as Kwannon-gyo in Japanese and Kuan-yin Ching in Chinese. It forms the Twenty-fifth Chapter in Kumarajiva's translation of the Saddharma-pundarika, "the Lotus of the Good Law". Its Sanskrit title is Samantamukha Parivarta. It is one of the most popular sutras in Japan, especially among followers of the Holy Path, including Zen, Tendai, Shingon, Nichiren, etc.

The Sanskrit for Kwannon seems, according to some Japanese authorities, originally to have been Avalokitasvara, and not Avalokitesvara. If so, Kwannon is a more literal rendering than Kwanzeon (Kuan-shih-yin) or Kwanjizai (Kuan-tzu-tsai). The Bodhisattva Avalokitasvara is "the owner of voice which is viewed or heard". From him issues a voice which is variously heard and interpreted by all beings, and it is by this hearing that the latter are emancipated from whatever troubles they are in.

The present translation is from Kumarajiva's Chinese. In the reading of the proper names, the Japanese way of pronunciation has been retained.

2. Bodhisattva Akshayamati in Sanskrit, that is, Bodhisattva of Inexhaustible Intelligence.]

tossed up and down in the surging waves, if they pronounce his name they will get into a shallower place.

When hundred-thousands of myriads of kotis of people go out into the great ocean in order to seek such treasures as gold, silver, lapis lazuli, conch shells, cornelian, coral, amber, pearls, and other precious stones, their boats may be wrecked by black storms, and they may find themselves thrown up into the island of the Rakshasas; if among them there is even a single person who will utter the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu all the people will be released from the disaster [which is likely to befall them at the hand] of the Rakshasas. For this reason the Bosatsu is called Kwanzeon.

When, again, a man is about to suffer an injury, if he will utter the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu, the sword or the stick that is held [by the executioner] will be at once broken to pieces and the man be released.

When all the Yakshas and Rakshasas filling the three thousand chiliocosms come and annoy a man, they may hear him utter the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu, and no wicked spirits will dare look at him with their evil eyes, much less inflict injuries on him.

When again a man, whether guilty or innocent, finds himself bound in chains or held with manacles, he uttering the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu will see all these broken to pieces and be released.

When all the lands in the three thousand chiliocosms are filled with enemies, a merchant and his caravan loaded with precious treasures may travel through the dangerous passes. One of the company will say to the others: "O good men, have no fear; only with singleness of thought utter the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu. As this Bosatsu gives us fearlessness, utter his name and you will be delivered from your enemies." Hearing this, all the company join in the recitation, saying, "Kwanzeon Bosatsu be adored!" Because of this uttering the name of the Bosatsu they will be released. O Mujinni, such is the awe-inspiring spiritual power of Kwanzeon Bosatsu Makasatsu.

When people are possessed of excessive lust, let them always reverentially think of Kwanzeon Bosatsu and they will be freed from it. If they are possessed of excessive anger, let them always reverentially think of Kwanzeon Bosatsu, and they will be freed from it. When they are possessed of excessive folly let them always reverentially think of Kwanzeon Bosatsu, and they will be freed from it. O Mujinni, of such magnitude is his spiritual power which is full of blessings. Therefore, let all beings always think of him.

If a woman desire a male child, let her worship and make offerings to Kwanzeon Bosatsu, and she will have a male child fully endowed with bliss and wisdom. If she desire a female child, she will have one graceful in features and in possession of all the characteristics (of noble womanhood], and because of her having planted the root of merit the child will be loved and respected by all beings. O Mujinni, such is the power of Kwanzeon Bosatsu.

If all beings worship and make offerings to Kwanzeon Bosatsu, they will derive benefits unfailingly from this. Therefore, let all beings hold the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu. O Mujinni, if there is a man who holds the names of all the Bodhisattvas equal in number to sixty-two billion times as many as the sands of the Ganga, and till the end of his life makes them offerings of food and drink, clothing and bedding and medicine, what do you think? Is not the merit accumulated by such a man very great?

Mujinni said: Very great, indeed, World-honoured One!

The Buddha said: Here is another man; if he should hold the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu even for a while and make offerings to the Bosatsu, the merit so attained by this one is fully equal to that [of the previous one], and will not be exhausted even to the end of hundred-thousands of myriads of kotis of kalpas. Those who hold the name of Kwanzeon Bosatsu gain such immeasurable and innumerable masses of blissful merit.

Mujinni Bosatsu said to the Buddha: "World-honoured One, how does Kwanzeon Bosatsu visit this Saha world?[1]

[1. That is, sahaloka, world of patience.]

How does he preach the Dharma to all beings? What is the extent of his skilful means?

The Buddha said to Mujinni Bosatsu: O good man, if there are beings in any country who are to be saved by his assuming a Buddha-form, Kwanzeon Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Buddha and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Pratyekabuddha-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Pratyekabuddha and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Sravaka-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Sravaka and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Brahma-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Brahma and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Sakrendra-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Sakrendra and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming an Isvara-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of an Isvara and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Mahesvara-form, he will manifest himself in the form of a Mahesvara and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Chakravartin-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Chakravartin and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Vaisravana-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Vaisravana and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming the form of a Provincial chief, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a provincial chief and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a householder's form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a householder and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a lay-disciple's form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a lay-disciple and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a state-officer's form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a state-officer and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Brahman-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself to them in the form of a Brahman and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Bhikshu-form, or a Bhikshuni-, or an Upasaka-, or an Upasika-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a Bhikshu, or a Bhikshuni, or an Upasaka, or an Upasika, and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a female form of the family of a householder, or a lay-disciple, or a state-officer, or a Brahman, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of such a female and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a youth- or a maiden-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of a youth or a maiden and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Deva-, Naga-, Yaksha-, Gandharva-, Asura-, Garuda-, Kinnara-, Mahoraga-, Manushya-, or Amanushya-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in any of these forms and preach them the Dharma.

If beings are to be saved by his assuming a Vajrapani-form, the Bosatsu will manifest himself in the form of Vajrapani and preach them the Dharma.

O Mujinni, this Kwanzeon Bosatsu performs such meritorious deeds by assuming varieties of forms, and by visiting different lands saves and releases beings. Therefore, you will make offerings with singleness of thought to Kwanzeon Bosatsu. In the midst of fears, perils, and disasters, it is he who gives us fearlessness,[1] and for this reason he is called in this Saha world the one who gives fearlessness.

[1. "Safety", or better "faith".]

offering to Kwanzeon Bosatsu. So saying, he took off his necklace strung with all kinds of precious gems worth hundreds of thousands of gold pieces, and presented it to Kwanzeon Bosatsu with this word: Venerable Sir, accept this necklace of precious gems as a Dharma offering.

Kwanzeon Bosatsu refused to accept it, whereupon Mujinni said to him: Venerable Sir, Pray accept this out of compassion for us all.

Then the Buddha said to Kwanzeon Bosatsu: Out of compassion for Mujinni Bosatsu and all the four classes of beings, and also for the Devas, Nagas, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Asuras, Garudas, Kinnaras, Mahoragas, Manushyas, Amanushyas and others, accept, O Kwanzeon Bosatsu, this necklace of his.

Then because of his compassion for all the four classes of beings and for Devas, Nagas, Manushyas, Amanushyas and others, Kwanzeon Bosatsu accepted the necklace, and dividing it into two parts he presented the one to Shakamunibutsu (Sakyamuni Buddha) and the other to the shrine of Tahobutsu (Prabhutaratna Buddha).

O Mujinni, Kwanzeon Bosatsu who is the possessor of such a miraculous spiritual power, visits in this wise this Saha world.

At that time Mujinni Bosatsu asked in verse, saying:

O World-honoured One who is in possession of exquisite features, I now again ask him: For what reason is the son of the Buddha called Kwanzeon?

The Honoured One in possession of exquisite features answered Mujinni in verse: just listen to the life of Kwanzeon! He is always ready to respond to calls from all quarters. His universal vows are as deep as the ocean. For ages beyond conception, he has served myriads of Buddhas and made great vows of purity.

I will briefly tell you about them. When people hear his name and see his body and think of him in their minds not vainly, they will see every form of ill effaced in all the worlds.

If an enemy wishing to harm a man pushes him down to a pit of great fire, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon and the fiery pit will be transformed into a pond.

Or if drifting in the vast ocean a man is about to be swallowed up by the Nagas, fishes, or evil beings, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and the waves will not drown him.

Or if from the top of Mount Sumeru a man is hurled down by an enemy, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and he will stay in the air like the sun.

Or if pursued by wicked persons a man falls on the Vajra mountain, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and not a hair on him will be injured.

Or if surrounded by an army of enemies a man is threatened by them, each of whom with a sword in hand is about to injure him, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and the enemies will cherish a compassionate heart.

Or if persecuted by a tyrant a man is about to end his life at the place of execution, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and the executioner's sword will at once be broken to pieces.

Or if a man should find himself imprisoned and enchained with his hands and feet manacled and fettered, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and he will be released from the shackles.

If harm is going to be done to a man by means of magic or poisonous herbs, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and the curse will revert to the people from whom it started.

Or if a man should encounter a party of Rakshasas, or Nagas exhaling poison, or evil spirits, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and no harm will ever be done to him.

If a man is surrounded by wild beasts whose sharp teeth and claws are to be dreaded, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and they will quickly run away in all directions.

If a man is attacked by venomous snakes and scorpions breathing poisonous gas ready to scorch him, let his thought the power of Kwannon, and they will all turn away from him shrieking.

When thunder-clouds burst with flashes of lightning, a storm of hailstones or pouring rain in torrents, thought dwell on the power of Kwannon and the storm will in no time clear away.

If a calamity falls on beings and they are tortured with interminable pain, [let them resort to] Kwannon who, being endowed with the mysterious power of wisdom, will save them from all troubles in the world.

Kwannon is the possessor of miraculous powers, widely disciplined in knowledge and skilful means, and in all the lands of the ten quarters there is not a place where he does not manifest himself.

The various evil paths of existence such as hells, evil spirits, beastly creatures, etc., and the pains arising from birth, old age, disease, and death--they will all by degrees be annihilated.

[Kwannon is] the one who views the world in truth, free from defilement, with knowledge extending far, and full of love and compassion; he is to be always prayed to and always adored.

He is a pure, spotless light and, like the sun, dispels all darkness with wisdom, and also subverts the disastrous effects of wind and fire; his all-illuminating light fills the world.

His body of love he keeps under control like thunder that shakes the world; his thought of compassion resembles a great mass of cloud from which a rain of the Dharma comes down like nectar, destroying the flames of evil passions.

If a man is held at court with a case against him, or if he is intimidated at a military camp, let his thought dwell on the power of Kwannon, and all his enemies will beat retreat.

[His is] a most exquisite voice, a voice that surveys the World, the voice of Brahma, the voice of the ocean-one that excels all the voices of the world. For this reason let our thought always dwell on him.

Let us never cherish thoughts of doubt about Kwanzeon who is thoroughly pure and holy and is really a refuge and protector in trouble, grief, death, and disaster.

He is in possession of all merits, regards all things with an eye of compassion, and like the ocean holds in himself an inestimable mass of virtues. For this reason he is to be adored.

At that time Jiji Bosatsu[1] rose from his seat, and standing before the Buddha said: World-honoured One, they are truly furnished with no small amount of merit who listen to his Chapter on Kwanzeon Bosatsu, in which his life of perfect activities is described--the life of one who endowed with miraculous powers, manifests himself in all directions.

When the Buddha finished preaching this Chapter on the All-sided One all the people in the assembly, amounting to 84,000 in number, cherished the desire for the supreme enlightenment with which there is nothing to compare.


3:3

The Kongokyo, or Vajracchedika (the first half and extracts from the second half) 金剛経


III

THE KONGOKYO OR DIAMOND SUTRA[2]

1. Thus I have heard.

At one time the Buddha stayed at Anathapindaka's Garden in the grove of Jeta in the kingdom of Sravasti; he was together with 1,250 great Bhikshus. When the meal time came the World-honoured One put on his cloak and, holding his bowl, entered the great city of Sravasti, where he begged for food. Having finished his begging from door to door, he came back to his own place, and took his meal.

[1. Dharanindhara in Sanskrit, "the supporter of the earth".

2 Kongokyo in Japanese. The full title in Sanskrit is Vajracchedika-prajna-paramita-sutra. It belongs to the Prajna class of Mahayana literature. Those who are not accustomed to this kind of reasoning may wonder what is the ultimate signification of all these negations. The Prajna dialectic means to lead us to a higher affirmation by contradicting a simple direct statement. It differs from the Hegelian in its directness and intuitiveness.

The present English translation is from Kumarajiva's Chinese version made between 402-412 C.E.]

When this was done, he put away his cloak and bowl, washed his feet, spread his seat, and sat down.

2. Then the Venerable Subhuti, who was among the assembly, rose from his seat, bared his right shoulder, set his right knee on the ground, and, respectfully folding his hands, addressed the Buddha thus:

"It is wonderful, World-honoured One, that the Tathagata thinks so much of all the Bodhisattvas and instructs them so well. World-honoured One, in case good men and good women ever raise the desire for the Supreme Enlightenment, how would they abide in it? how would they keep their thoughts under control?"

The Buddha said: "Well said, indeed, O Subhuti! As you say, the Tathagata thinks very much of all the Bodhisattvas, and so instructs them well. But now listen attentively and I will tell you. In case good men and good women raise the desire for the Supreme Enlightenment, they should thus abide in it, they should thus keep their thoughts under control."

"So be it, World-honoured One, I wish to listen to You."

3. The Buddha said to Subhuti: "All the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should thus keep their thoughts under control. All kinds of beings such as the egg-born, the womb-born, the moisture-born, the miraculously-born, those with form, those without form, those with consciousness, those without consciousness, those with no-consciousness, and those without no-consciousness--they are all led by me to enter Nirvana that leaves nothing behind and to attain final emancipation. Though thus beings immeasurable, innumerable, and unlimited are emancipated, there are in reality no beings that are ever emancipated. Why, Subhuti? If a Bodhisattva retains the thought of an ego, a person, a being, or a soul, he is no more a Bodhisattva.

4. "Again, Subhuti, when a Bodhisattva practises charity he should not be cherishing any idea, that is to say, he is not to cherish the idea of a form when practising charity, nor is he to cherish the idea of a sound, an odour, a touch, or a quality.[1] Subhuti, a Bodhisattva should thus practise charity without cherishing any idea of form. Why? When a Bodhisattva practises charity without cherishing any idea of form, his merit will be beyond conception. Subhuti, what do you think? Can you have the conception of space extending eastward?"

"No, World-honoured One ' I cannot."

"Subhuti, can you have the conception of space extending towards the south, or west, or north, or above, or below?"

"No, World-honoured One, I cannot."

"Subhuti, so it is with the merit of a Bodhisattva who practises charity without cherishing any idea of form; it is beyond conception. Subhuti, a Bodhisattva should cherish only that which is taught to him.

5. "Subhuti, what do you think? Is the Tathagata to be recognized after a body-form?"

"No, World-honoured One, he is not to be recognized after a body-form. Why? According to the Tathagata, a body-form is not a body-form."

The Buddha said to Subhuti, "All that has a form is an illusive existence. When it is perceived that all form is no-form, the Tathagata is recognized."

6. Subhuti said to the Buddha: "World-honoured One, if beings hear such words and statements, would they have a true faith in them?"

The Buddha said to Subhuti: "Do not talk that way. In the last five hundred years after the passing of the Tathagata, there may be beings who, having practised rules of morality and, being thus possessed of merit, happen to hear of these statements and rouse a true faith in them. Such beings, you must know, are those who have planted their root of merit not only under one, two, three, four, or five Buddhas, but already under thousands of myriads of asamkhyeyas of Buddhas have they planted their root of merit of all kinds. Those who hearing these statements rouse even one thought

[1. Dharma, that is, the object of manovijnana, thought, as form (rupa) is the object of the visual sense, sound that of the auditory sense, odour that of the olfactory sense, and so forth.]

of pure faith, Subhuti, are all known to the Tathagata, and recognized by him as having acquired such an immeasurable amount of merit. Why? Because all these beings are free from the idea of an ego, a person, a being, or a soul; they are free from the idea of a dharma as well as from that of a no-dharma. Why? Because if they cherish in their minds the ,idea of a form, they are attached to an ego, a person, a being, or a soul. If they cherish the idea of a dharma, they are attached to an ego, a person, a being, or a soul. Why? If they cherish the idea of a no-dharma, they are attached to an ego, a person, a being, or a soul. Therefore, do not cherish the idea of a dharma, nor that of a no-dharma. For this reason, the Tathagata always preaches thus: 'O you Bhikshus, know that my teaching is to be likened unto a raft. Even a dharma is cast aside, much more a no-dharma.'

7. "Subhuti, what do you think? Has the Tathagata attained the supreme enlightenment? Has he something about which he would preach?"

Subhuti said: "World-honoured One, as I understand the teaching of the Buddha, there is no fixed doctrine about which the Tathagata would preach. Why? Because the doctrine he preaches is not to be adhered to, nor is it to be preached about; it is neither a dharma nor a no-dharma. 'How is it so? Because all wise men belong to the category known as non-doing (asamskara), and yet they are distinct from one another.

8. "Subhuti, what do you think? If a man should fill the three thousand chiliocosms with the seven precious treasures and give them all away for charity, would not the merit he thus obtains be great?"

Subhuti said: "Very great, indeed, World-honoured One."

"Why? Because their merit is characterized with the quality of not being a merit. Therefore, the Tathagata speaks of the merit as being great. If again there is a man who, holding even the four lines in this sutra, preaches about it to Others, his merit will be superior to the one just mentioned. Because, Subhuti, all the Buddhas and their supreme enlightenment issue from this sutra. Subhuti, what is known as the teaching of the Buddha is not the teaching of the Buddha.

9. "Subhuti, what do you think? Does a Srotapanna think in this wise: 'I have obtained the fruit of Srotapatti'?"

Subhuti said: "No, World-honoured One, he does not. Why? Because while Srotapanna means 'entering the stream' there is no entering here. He is called a Srotaparma who does not enter [a world of] form, sound, odour, taste, touch, and quality.

"Subhuti, what do you think? Does a Sakridagamin think in this wise, 'I have obtained the fruit of a Sakridagamin'?"

Subhuti said: "No, World-honoured One, he does not. Why? Because while Sakridagamin means 'going-and-coming for once', there is really no going-and-coming here, and he is then called a Sakridagamin."

"Subhuti, what do you think? Does an Anagamin think in this wise: 'I have obtained the fruit of an Anagamin'?"

Subhuti said: "No, World-honoured One, he does not. Why? Because while Anagamin means 'not-coming' there is really no not-coming and therefore he is called an Anagamin."

"Subhuti, what do you think? Does an Arhat think in this wise: 'I have obtained Arhatship'?"

Subhuti said: "No, World-honoured One, he does not. Why? Because there is no dharma to be called Arhat. If, World-honoured One, an Arhat thinks in this wise: 'I have obtained Arhatship,' this means that he is attached to an ego, a person, a being, or a soul. Although the Buddha says that I am the foremost of those who have attained Aranasamadhi,[1] that I am the foremost of those Arhats who are liberated from evil desires, World-honoured One, I cherish no such thought that I have attained Arhatship. World-honoured One, [if I did,] you would not tell me: 'O Subhuti,

[1. That is, Samadhi of non-resistance. Arana also means a forest where the Yogin retires to practise his meditation.]

are one who enjoys the life of non-resistance.' Just because Subhuti is not at all attached to this life, he is said to be the one who enjoys the life of non-resistance."

10. The Buddha said to Subhuti: "What do you think?

When the Tathagata was anciently with Dipankara Buddha did he have an attainment in the Dharma?"

"No, World-honoured One, he did not. The Tathagata while with Dipankara Buddha had no attainment whatever the Dharma."

"Subhuti, what do you think? Does a Bodhisattva set any Buddha-land in array?"

"No, World-honoured One, he does not."

"Why? Because to set a Buddha-land in array is not to set it in array, and therefore it is known as setting it in array. Therefore, Subhuti, all the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should thus rouse a pure thought. They should not cherish any thought dwelling on form; they should -not cherish any thought dwelling on sound, odour, taste, touch, and quality; they should cherish thoughts dwelling on nothing whatever. Subhuti, it is like unto a human body equal in size to Mount Sumeru; what do you think? Is not this body large?"

Subhuti said: "Very large indeed, World-honoured One. Why? Because the Buddha teaches that that which is no-body is known as a large body."

11. "Subhuti, regarding the sands of the Ganga, suppose there are as many Ganga rivers as those sands, what do you think? Are not the sands of all those Ganga rivers many?"

Subhuti said: "Very many, indeed, World-honoured one."

"Considering such Gangas alone, they must be said to be numberless; how much more the sands of all those Ganga rivers! Subhuti, I will truly ask you now. If there is a good man or a good woman who, filling all the worlds in the three thousand chiliocosms--all the worlds as many as the sands of these Ganga rivers--with the seven precious treasures, Uses them all for charity, would not this merit be very large?"

Subhuti said: "Very large indeed, World-honoured One."

Buddha said to Subhuti: "If a good man or a good woman holding even four lines from this sutra preach it to others, this merit is much larger than the preceding one.

12. "Again, Subhuti, wherever this sutra or even four lines of it are preached, this place will be respected by all beings including Devas, Asuras, etc., as if it were the Buddha's own shrine or chaitya; how much more a person who can hold and recite this sutra! Subhuti, you should know that such a person achieves the highest, foremost, and most wonderful deed. Wherever this sutra is kept, the place is to be regarded as if the Buddha or a venerable disciple of his were present."

13. At that time, Subhuti said to the Buddha: "World-honoured One, what will this sutra be called? How should we hold it?"

The Buddha said to Subhuti: "This sutra will be called the Vajra-prajna-paramita, and by this title you will hold it. The reason is, Subhuti, that, according to the teaching of the Buddha, Prajnaparamita is not Prajnaparamita and therefore it is called Prajnaparamita. Subhuti, what do you think? Is there anything about which the Tathagata preaches?"

Subhuti said to the Buddha: "World-honoured One, there is nothing about which the Tathagata preaches."

"Subhuti, what do you think? Are there many particles of dust in the three thousand chiliocosms?"

Subhuti said: "Indeed, there are many, World-honoured One."

"Subhuti, the Tathagata teaches that all these many particles of dust are no-particles of dust and therefore that they are called particles of dust; he teaches that the world is no-world and therefore that the world is called the world.

"Subhuti, what do you think? Is the Tathagata to be recognized by the thirty-two marks [of a great man]?"

"No, World-honoured One, he is not."

"The Tathagata is not to be recognized by the thirty-two marks, because what are said to be the thirty-two marks are told by the Tathagata to be no-marks and therefore to the thirty-two marks. Subhuti, if there be a good man or a good woman who gives away his or her lives as many as the sands of the Ganga, his or her merit thus gained does not exceed that of one who, holding even one gatha of four lines from this sutra, preaches them for others."

14. At that time Subhuti, listening to this sutra, had a deep understanding of its signification, and, filled with tears of gratitude, said this to the Buddha: "Wonderful, indeed, World-honoured One, that the Buddha teaches us this sutra full of deep sense. Such a sutra has never been heard by me even with an eye of wisdom acquired in my past lives. World-honoured One, if there be a man who listening to this sutra acquires a pure believing heart he will then have a true idea of things. This one is to be known as having achieved a most wonderful virtue. World-honoured One, what is known as a true idea is no-idea, and for this reason it is called a true idea.

"World-honoured One, it is not difficult for me to believe, to understand, and to hold this sutra to which I have now listened; but in the ages to come, in the next five hundred years, if there are beings who listening to this sutra are able to believe, to understand, and to hold it, they will indeed be most wonderful beings. Why? Because they will have no idea of an ego, of a person, of a being, or of a soul. For what reason? The idea of an ego is no-idea [of ego], the idea of a person, a being, or a soul is no-idea [of a person, a being, or a soul]. For what reason? They are Buddhas who are free from all kinds of ideas."

The Buddha said to Subhuti, "It is just as you say. If there be a man who, listening to this sutra, is neither frightened nor alarmed nor disturbed, you should know him as a wonderful person. Why? Subhuti, it is taught by the Tathagata that the first Paramita is no-first-Paramita and therefore it is called the first Paramita. Subhuti, the Paramita of humility (patience) is said by the Tathagata to be no-Paramita of humility, and therefore it is the Paramita of humility. Why? Subhuti, anciently, when my body was cut to pieces by the King of Kalinga, I had neither the idea of an ego, nor the idea of a person, nor the idea of a being, nor the idea of a soul. Why? When at that time my body was dismembered, limb after limb, joint after joint, if I had the idea either of an ego, or of a person, or of a being, or a soul, the feeling of anger and ill-will would have been awakened in me. Subhuti, I remember, in my past five hundred births, I was a rishi called Kshanti, and during those times I had neither the idea of an ego, nor that of a person, nor that of a being, nor that of a soul.

"Therefore, Subhuti, you should, detaching yourself from all ideas, rouse the desire for the supreme enlightenment. You should cherish thoughts without dwelling on form, you should cherish thoughts without dwelling on sound, odour, taste, touch, or quality. Whatever thoughts you may have, they are not to dwell on anything. If a thought dwells on anything, this is said to be no-dwelling. Therefore, the Buddha teaches that a Bodhisattva is not to practise charity by dwelling on form. Subhuti, the reason he practises charity is to benefit all beings.

"The Tathagata teaches that all ideas are no-ideas, and again that all beings are no-beings. Subhuti, the Tathagata is the one who speaks what is true, the one who speaks what is real, the one whose words are as they are, the one who does not speak falsehood, the one who does not speak equivocally.

"Subhuti, in the Dharma attained by the Tathagata there is neither truth nor falsehood. Subhuti, if a Bodhisattva should practise charity, cherishing a thought which dwells on the Dharma he is like unto a person who enters the darkness, he sees nothing. If he should practise charity without cherishing a thought that dwells on the Dharma, he is like unto a person with eyes, he sees all kinds of forms illumined by the sunlight.

"Subhuti, if there are good men and good women in the time to come who hold and recite this sutra, they will be seen and recognized by the Tathagata with his Buddha-knowledge, and they will all mature immeasurable and innumerable merit.

15. "Subhuti, if there is a good man or a good woman who would in the first part of the day sacrifice as many bodies of his or hers as the sands of the Ganga, and again in the middle part of the day sacrifice as many bodies of his or hers as the sands of the Ganga, and again in the latter part of the day sacrifice as many bodies of his or hers as the sands of the Ganga, and keep up these sacrifices through hundred-thousands of myriads of kotis of kalpas; and if there were another who listening to this sutra would accept it with a believing heart, the merit the latter would acquire would far exceed that of the former. How much more the merit of one who would copy, hold, learn, and recite and expound it for others!

"Subhuti, to sum up, there is in this sutra a mass of merit, immeasurable, innumerable, and incomprehensible. The Tathagata has preached this for those who were awakened in the Mahayana (great vehicle), he has preached it for those who were awakened in the Sreshthayana (highest Vehicle). If there were beings who would hold and learn and expound it for others, they would all be known to the Tathagata and recognized by him, and acquire merit which is unmeasured, immeasurable, innumerable, and incomprehensible. Such beings are known to be carrying the supreme enlightenment attained by the Tathagata. 'Why? Subhuti, those who desire inferior doctrines are attached to the idea of an ego, a person, a being, and a soul. They are unable to hear, hold, learn, recite, and for others expound this sutra. Subhuti, wherever this sutra is preserved, there all beings, including Devas and Asuras, will come and worship it. This place will have to be known as a chaitya, the object of worship and obeisance, where the devotees gather around, scatter flowers, and burn incense.

16. "Again, Subhuti, there are some good men and good women who will be despised for their holding and reciting this sutra. This is due to their previous evil karma for the reason of which they were to fall into the evil paths of existence; but because of their being despised in the present life, whatever evil karma they produced in their previous lives will be thereby destroyed, and they will be able to attain the supreme enlightenment.

"Subhuti, as I remember, in my past lives innumerable asamkhyeya kalpas ago I was with Dipankara Buddha, and at that time I saw Buddhas as many as eighty-four hundred. thousands of myriads of nayutas and made offerings to them and respectfully served them all, and not one of them was passed by me.

"If again in the last [five hundred] years, there have been people who hold and recite and learn this sutra, the merit they thus attain [would be beyond calculation], for when this is compared with the merit I have attained by serving all the Buddhas, the latter will not exceed one hundredth part of the former, no, not one hundred thousand ten millionth part. No, it is indeed beyond calculation, beyond analogy.

"Subhuti, if there have been good men and good women in the last five hundred years who hold, recite, and learn this sutra, the merit they attain thereby I cannot begin to enumerate in detail. If I did, those who listen to it would lose their minds, cherish grave doubts, and not believe at all how beyond comprehension is the significance of this sutra and how also beyond comprehension the rewards are."[1]

18. The Buddha said to Subhuti: "Of all beings in those innumerable lands, the Tathagata knows well all their mental traits. Why? Because the Tathagata teaches that all those mental traits are no-traits and therefore they are

[1. This finishes the first part of the Diamond Sutra as it is usually divided here and passes on to the second part. The text goes on in a similar strain through its remaining section. Indeed, there are some scholars who think that the second part is really a repetition of the first, or that they are merely different copies of one and the same original text, and that whatever variations there are in these two copies arc the result of the glosses mixed into the text itself. While I cannot wholly subscribe to this view, the fact is that passages containing similar thoughts recur throughout the whole Prajnaparamita literature. In view of this I quote in the following only such ideas as have not fully been expressed in the first part.]

known to be mental traits. Subhuti, thoughts[1] of the past are beyond grasp, thoughts of the present are beyond grasp, and thoughts of the future are beyond grasp."

23. "Again, Subhuti, this Dharma is even and has neither elevation nor depression; and it is called supreme enlightenment. Because a man practises everything that is good, without cherishing the thought of an ego, a person, a being, and a soul, he attains the supreme enlightenment. Subhuti, what is called good is no-good, and therefore it is known as good."

26. "Subhuti, what do you think? Can a man see the Tathagata by the thirty-two marks [of a great man]?"

Subhuti said: "So it is, so it is. The Tathagata is seen by his thirty-two marks."

The Buddha said to Subhuti, "If the Tathagata is to be seen by his thirty-two marks, can the Cakravartin be a Tathagata?"

Subhuti said to the Buddha: "World-honoured One, as I understand the teaching of the Buddha, the Tathagata is not to be seen by the thirty-two marks."

Then the World-honoured One uttered this gatha: "If any one by form sees me, By voice seeks me, This one walks the false path, And cannot see the Tathagata."

29. "Subhuti, if a man should declare that the Tathagata is the one who comes, or goes, or sits, or lies, he does not understand the meaning of my teaching. Why? The Tathagata does not come from anywhere, and does not depart to anywhere; therefore he is called the Tathagata.

[1. Citta stands for both mind and thought. The idea expressed here is that there is no particularly determined entity in us which is psychologically designated as mind or thought. The moment we think we have taken hold of a thought, it is no more with us. So with the idea of a soul, or an ego, or a being, or a Person, there is no such particular entity objectively to be so distinguished, and which remains as such eternally separated from the subject who so thinks. This ungraspability of a mind or thought, which is tantamount to saying that there is no soul-substance as a solitary unrelated "thing" in the recesses of consciousness, is one of the basic doctrines of Buddhism, Mahayana and Hinayana.]

32. "How does a man expound it for others? When one is not attached to form, it is of Suchness remaining unmoved. Why?

"All composite things (samskrita)
Are like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, and a shadow,
Are like a dew-drop and a flash of lightning;
They are thus to be regarded."


3:4

 The Lankavatara Sutra, or Ryogakyo (extracts) 楞伽経


楞伽経』(りょうがきょう、Laṅkāvatāra Sūtraランカーヴァターラ・スートラ)とは、中期大乗仏教経典の一つ。如来蔵思想と唯識思想が説かれる。

についても説かれているため、初祖である達磨大師以来、中国における初期の禅宗でも重視された(六祖・慧能からは、代わりに『金剛経』(金剛般若経)が重視されるようになった)[1]

ネパールでは、九法宝典(Navagrantha)の一つとして位置づけられる[2]

原題は、「ランカー(楞伽)」(Laṅkā)が「スリランカの古名」、「ヴァターラ」(vatāra)が「城」、「スートラ」(sūtra)が「経」、総じて「(釈迦によって説かれた)ランカーの城での教え」の意。

目次

概要編集

ランカー島(セイロン島)を訪れた釈迦ラーヴァナと対話する、という体裁をとる。

以下の三種の訳書が現存する。

大正新脩大藏經では「経集部」に収録。

参考文献編集

『華厳経』『楞伽経』 (現代語訳大乗仏典5) 中村元著、東京書籍、2003年 ISBN 978-4487732852

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新 国訳大蔵経 如来蔵・唯識部 2 楞伽経

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 要旨    初期禅宗以来、中国・日本で重要視された『四巻楞伽』。しかし多岐にわたる思想内容と

曖昧な表現に加え、梵文の語順のままに漢語を配列した特殊な訳文が頻出するこの漢訳経

典を、漢文脈のみから理解することは甚だ困難であった。本書は、梵語原典・チベット語

訳・他の漢訳との厳密な比較対照を踏まえて、難解きわまりない経文の論旨を丹念に読み

解いた、待望の訳註書である。

 目次    楞伽阿跋多羅宝経(序分(通序;別序;偈問;百八問;偈答 ほか));正宗分(説識異

外分(識の特質と生住滅);二七性心分(ものの本性とものの見方の心髄―七種の自性と

七種の第一義);邪正見異分(小乗・外教の因果論と大乗の唯心の理);識転不壊分(ア

ーラヤ識と七転識(1));別説識真分(アーラヤ識と七転識(2) ほか))

 内容    インド仏教思想の宝庫でありながら、禅仏教の「不立文字・教外別伝」の拠り所となった

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IV

THE LANKAVATARA SUTRA

This sutra is said to have been given by Bodhidharma to his chief disciple Hui-k'e as containing the essential teaching of Zen. Since then it has been studied chiefly by Zen philosophers. But being full of difficult technical terms in combination with a rugged style of writing, the text has not been so popular for study as other Mahayana sutras, for instance, the Pundarika, the Vimalakirti, or the Vajracchedika.

The chief interlocutor is a Bodhisattva called Mahamati, and varied subjects of philosophical speculation are discussed against a background of deep religious concern. The topic most interesting for the reader of this book is that of svapratyatmagati, i.e. self-realization of the highest truth.

Some of the terms may be explained here: "Birth and death" (samsara in Sanskrit) always stands contrasted to "Nirvana". Nirvana is the highest truth and the norm of existence while birth and death is a world of particulars governed by karma and causation. As long as we are subject to karma we go from one birth to another, and suffer all the ills necessarily attached to this kind of life, though it is a form of immortality. What Buddhists want is not this.

"Mind only" (cittamatra) is an uncouth term. It means absolute mind, to be distinguished from an empirical mind which is the subject of psychological study. When it begins with a capital letter, it is the ultimate reality on which the entire world of individual objects depends for its value. To realise this truth is the aim of the Buddhist life.

By "what is seen of the Mind-only" is meant this visible world including that which is generally known as mind. Our ordinary experience takes this world for something that has its "self-nature", i.e. existing by itself. But a higher intuition tells us that this is not so, that it is an illusion, and that what really exists is Mind, which being absolute knows no second. All that we see and hear and think of as objects of the vijnanas are what rise and disappear in and of the Mind-only.

This absolute Mind is also called in the Lankavatara the Dharma of Solitude (vivikta-dhama), because it stands by itself. It also signifies the Dharma's being absolutely quiescent.

There is no "discrimination" in this Dharma of Solitude, which means that discrimination belongs to this side of existence where multiplicities obtain and causation rules. Indeed, without this discrimination no world is possible.

Discrimination is born of "habit-energy" or "memory", which lies latently preserved in the "alayavijnana" or all-conserving consciousness. This consciousness alone has no power to act by itself. It is altogether passive, and remains Inactive until a particularizing agency touches it. The appearance of this agency is a great mystery which is not to be solved by the intellect; it is something to be accepted simply as such. It is awakened "all of a sudden", according to Asvaghosha.

To understand what this suddenness means is the function of "noble wisdom" (aryajnana). But as a matter of experience, the sudden awakening of discrimination has no meaning behind it. The fact is simply that it is awakened, and no more; it is not an expression pointing to something else.

When the Alayavijnana or the all-conserving consciousness is considered a store-house, or better, a creative matrix from which all the Tathagatas issue, it is called "Tathagata-garbha". The Garbha is the womb.

Ordinarily, all our cognitive apparatus is made to work outwardly in a world of relativity, and for this reason we become deeply involved in it so that we fail to realize the freedom we all intrinsically possess, and as a result we are annoyed on all sides. To turn away from all this, what may psychologically be called a "revulsion" or "revolution" must take place in our inmost consciousness. This is not however a mere empirical psychological fact to be explained in terms of consciousness. It takes place in the deepest recesses of our being. The original Sanskrit is paravrittasraya.

The following extracts are from my English translation (1932) of the original Sanskrit text edited by Bunyu Nanjo, 1923.

  • 『梵文入楞伽経 邦訳』泉芳璟共訳 南条先生古稀記念祝賀会 1927]

XVIII

Further, Mahamati, those who, afraid of sufferings arising from the discrimination of birth and death, seek for Nirvana, do not know that birth and death and Nirvana are not to be separated the one from the other; and, seeing that all things subject to discrimination have no reality, imagine that Nirvana consists in the further annihilation of the senses and their fields. They are not aware, Mahamati, of the fact that Nirvana is the Alayavijnana where a revulsion takes place by self-realization. Therefore, Mahamati, those who are stupid talk of the trinity of vehicles and not of the state of Mind-only where there are no shadows. Therefore, Mahamati, those who do not understand the teachings of the Tathagatas of the past, present, and future, concerning the external world, which is of Mind itself, cling to the notion that there is a world outside what is seen of the Mind and, Mahamati, go on rolling themselves along the wheel of birth and death.

XIX

Further, Mahamati, according to the teaching of the Tathagatas of the past, present, and future, all things are unborn. Why? Because they have no reality, being manifestations of Mind itself; and, Mahamati, as they are not born of being and non-being, they are unborn. Mahamati, all things are like the horns of the hare, horse, donkey, or camel, but the ignorant and simple-minded, who are given up to their false and erroneous imaginations, discriminate things where they are not; therefore, all things are unborn. That all things are in their self-nature unborn, Mahamati, belongs to the realm of self-realization attained by noble wisdom, and does not belong essentially to the realm of dualistic discrimination cherished by the ignorant and simple-minded.

The self-nature and the characteristic marks of body, property, and abode evolve when the Alayavijnana is conceived of by the ignorant as grasping and grasped; and then they fall into a dualistic view of existence where they recognize its rise, abiding, and disappearance, cherishing the idea that all things are born and subject to discrimination as to being and non-being. Therefore, Mahamati, you should discipline yourself therein [i.e. in self-realization].

XXIV

Further again, Mahamati, let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva have a thorough understanding as to the nature of the twofold egolessness. Mahamati, what is this twofold egolessness? [It is the egolessness of persons and the egolessness of things. What is meant by egolessness of persons? It means that] in the collection of the Skandhas, Dhatus, and Ayatanas there is no ego-substance, nor anything belonging to it; the Vijnana is originated by ignorance, deed, and desire, and keeps up its function by grasping objects by means of the sense-organs, such as the eye, etc., and by clinging to them as real; while a world of objects and bodies is manifested owing to the discrimination that takes place in the world which is of Mind itself, that is, in the Alayavijnana.

By reason of the habit-energy stored up by false imagination since beginningless time, this world (vishaya) is subject to change and destruction from moment to moment; it is like a river, a seed, a lamp, wind, a cloud; [while the Vijnana itself is] like a monkey who is always restless, like a fly who is ever in search of unclean things and defiled places, like a fire which is never satisfied. Again, it is like a water-drawing wheel or a machine, it [i.e. the Vijnana] goes on rolling the wheel of transmigration, carrying varieties of bodies and forms, resuscitating the dead like the demon Vetala, causing the wooden figures to move about as a magician moves them. Mahamati, a thorough understanding concerning these phenomena is called comprehending the egolessness of persons.

Now, Mahamati, what is meant by the egolessness of things? It is to realize that the Skandhas, Dhatus, and Ayatanas are characterized with the nature of false discrimination. Mahamati, since the Skandhas, Dhatus, and Ayatanas are destitute of an ego-substance, being no more than an aggregation of the Skandhas, and subject to the conditions of mutual origination which are causally bound up with the string of desire and deed; and since thus there is no creating agent in them, Mahamati, the Skandhas are even destitute of the marks of individuality and generality-, and the ignorant, owing to their erroneous discrimination, imagine here the multiplicity of phenomena; the wise, however, do not. Recognizing, Mahamati, that all things are devoid of the Citta, Manas, Manovijnana, the five Dharmas, and the [three] Svabhavas, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva, will well understand what is meant by the egolessness of things.

Again, Mahamati, when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva has a good understanding as regards the egolessness of things, before long he will attain the first stage [of the Bodhisattvahood], when he gets a definite cognition of the ageless. When a definite acquisition is obtained regarding aspect of the stages [of Bodhisattvahood], the Bodhisattva will experience joy, and, gradually and successively going the scale, will reach the ninth stage where his insight is perfected, and [finally the tenth stage known as] Great Dharma-megha.

Establishing himself here, he will be seated in the great Jewel palace known as "Great Lotus Throne" which is in the shape of a lotus and is adorned with various sorts of jewels and pearls; he will then acquire and complete a world of Maya-nature; surrounded by Bodhisattvas of the same character and anointed like the son of the Cakravarti by the hands of the Buddhas coming from all the Buddha-lands, he will go beyond the last stage of Bodhisattvahood, attain the noble truth of self-realization, and become a Tathagata endowed with the perfect freedom of the Dharmakaya, because of his insight into the egolessness of things. This, Mahamati, is what is meant by the egolessness of all things, and in this you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should well exercise yourselves.

XXVIII

At that time, Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Now the Blessed One makes mention of the Tathagata-garbha in the sutras, and verily it is described by you as by nature bright and pure, as primarily unspotted, endowed with the thirty-two marks of excellence, hidden in the body of every being like a gem of great value, which is enwrapped in a dirty garment, enveloped in the garment of the Skandhas, Dhatus, and Ayatanas, and soiled with the dirt of greed, anger, folly, and false imagination, while it is described by the Blessed One to be eternal, permanent, auspicious, and unchangeable. Is not this Tathagata-garbha taught by the Blessed One the same as the ego-substance taught by the philosophers? The ego as taught in the systems of the philosophers is an eternal creator, unqualified, omnipresent, and imperishable.

The Blessed One replied: No, Mahamati, my Tathagata-garbha is not the same as the ego taught by the philosophers; for what the Tathagatas teach is the Tathagata-garbha in the sense, Mahamati, that it is emptiness, reality-limit, Nirvana, being unborn, unqualified, and devoid of will-effort; the reason why the Tathagatas, who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones, teach the doctrine pointing to the Tathagata-garbha is to make the ignorant cast aside their fear when they listen to the teaching of egolessness and to have them realize the state of non-discrimination and imagelessness.

I also wish, Mahamati, that the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of the present and future would not attach themselves to the idea of an ego [imagining it to be a soul]. Mahamati, it is like a potter who manufactures various vessels out of a mass of clay of one sort by his own manual skill and labour combined with a rod, water, and thread, Mahamati, that the Tathagatas preach the egolessness of things which removes all the traces of discrimination by various skilful means issuing from their transcendental wisdom; that is, sometimes by the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha, sometimes by that of egolessness, and like a potter, by means of various terms, expressions, and synonyms. For this reason, Mahamati, the philosophers' doctrine of an ego-substance is not the same as the teaching of the Tathagata-garbha.

Thus, Mahamati, the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha is disclosed in order to awaken the philosophers from their clinging to the idea of the ego, so that those minds that have fallen into the views imagining the non-existent ego as real, and also into the notion that the triple emancipation is final, may rapidly be awakened to the state of supreme enlightenment. Accordingly, Mahamati, the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones disclose the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha, which is thus not to be known as identical with the philosopher's notion of an ego-substance.

Therefore, Mahamati, in order to abandon the misconception cherished by the philosophers, you must strive after the teaching of egolessness and the Tathagata-garbha.

XXXV

At that time, Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again said this to the Blessed One:

Pray tell me, Blessed One, about the attainment of self-realization by noble wisdom, which does not belong to the path and the usage of the philosophers;

Which is devoid of [all such predicates as] being and non-being, oneness and otherness, bothness and not-bothness, existence and non-existence, eternity and non-eternity;

Which has nothing to do with the false imagination, nor with individuality and generality; which manifests itself as the truth of highest reality;

Which, going up continuously by degrees the stages of purification, enters upon the stage of Tathagatahood;

Which, because of the original vows unattended by any striving, will perform its works in infinite worlds like a gem reflecting a variety of colours;

And which is manifested [when one perceives how] signs of individuation rise in all things as one realizes the course and realm of what is seen of Mind itself, and thereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are enabled to survey things from the point of view which is not hampered by marks of individuality and generality nor by anything of the false imagination, and may quickly attain supreme enlightenment and enable all beings to achieve the perfection of all their virtues.

Replied the Blessed One: Well done, well done, Mahamati! and again, well done, indeed, Mahamati! Because of your compassion for the world, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, for the welfare, benefit, happiness of many people, both of celestial beings and humankind, Mahamati, you present yourself before me and make this request. Therefore, Mahamati, listen well and truly, and reflect, for I will tell you.

Assuredly, said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva, and gave ear to the Blessed One.

The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati, since the ignorant and the simple-minded, not knowing that the world is what is seen of Mind itself, cling to the multitudinousness of external objects, cling to the notions of being and nonbeing, oneness and otherness, bothness and not-bothness, existence and non-existence, eternity and non-eternity, as having the character of self-substance (svabhava), which idea rises from discrimination based on habit-energy, they are addicted to false imaginings.

Mahamati, it is like a mirage in which the springs are seen as if they were real. They are imagined so by the animals who, thirsty from the heat of the season, would run after them. Not knowing that the springs are their own mental illusions, the animals do not realize that there are no such springs. In the same way, Mahamati, the ignorant and simple-minded with their minds impressed by various erroneous speculations and discriminations since beginningless time; with their minds burning with the fire of greed, anger, and folly; delighted in a world of multitudinous forms; with their thoughts saturated with the ideas of birth, destruction, and subsistence; not understanding well what is meant by existent and non-existent, by inner and outer, these ignorant and simple-minded fall into the way of grasping at oneness and otherness, being and non-being [as realities].

Mahamati, it is like the city of the Gandharvas which the unwitted take for a real city, though it is not so in fact. This city appears in essence owing to their attachment to the memory of a city preserved in seed from beginningless time. This city is thus neither existent nor non-existent. In the same way, Mahamati, clinging to the memory (vasana) of erroneous speculations and doctrines since beginningless time, they hold fast to ideas such as oneness and otherness, being and non-being, and their thoughts are not at all clear about what is seen of Mind-only.

Mahamati, it is like a man, who, dreaming in his sleep of a country variously filled with women, men, elephants, horses, cars, pedestrians, villages, towns, hamlets, cows, buffalos, mansions, woods, mountains, rivers, and lakes, enters into its inner apartments and is awakened. While awakened thus, he recollects the city and its inner apartments. What do you think, Mahamati? Is this person to be regarded as wise, who is recollecting the various unrealities he has seen in his dream?

Said Mahamati: Indeed, he is not, Blessed One.

The Blessed One continued: In the same way the ignorant and simple-minded who are bitten by erroneous views and inclined towards the philosophers, do not recognize that things seen of the Mind itself are like a dream, and are held fast by the notions of oneness and otherness, of being and non-being.

Mahamati, it is like the painter's canvas on which there is neither depression nor elevation as imagined by the ignorant. In the same way, Mahamati, there may be in the future some people brought up in the habit-energy, mentality, and imagination based on the philosophers' erroneous views; clinging to the ideas of oneness and otherness, or bothness and not-bothness, they may bring themselves and others to ruin; they may declare those people nihilists who hold the doctrine of no-birth apart from the category of being and non-being. They [argue against] cause and effect, they are followers of the wicked views whereby they uproot meritorious causes of unstained purity. They are to be kept away by those whose desires are for things excellent. They are those whose thoughts are entangled in the error of self, other, and both, entangled in the error of imagining being and non-being, assertion and refutation; and hell will be their final resort.

Mahamati, it is like the dim-eyed ones who, seeing a hair-net, would exclaim to one another, saying: "It is wonderful! it is wonderful! Look, O honourable sirs!" And the said hair-net has never been brought into existence. It is in fact neither an entity nor a non-entity, because it is seen and not seen. In the same manner, Mahamati, those whose minds are addicted to discrimination of the erroneous views as cherished by the philosophers, and who are also given up to the realistic ideas of being and non-being, oneness and otherness, bothness and not-bothness, will contradict the good Dharma, ending in the destruction of themselves and others.

Mahamati, it is like a firebrand-wheel which is no real wheel but which is imagined to be of such character by the ignorant, but not by the wise. In the same manner, Mahamati, those whose minds have fallen into the erroneous views of the philosophers will falsely imagine in the rise of all beings [the reality of] oneness and otherness, bothness and not-bothness.

Mahamati, it is like those water-bubbles in a rainfall which have the appearance of crystal gems, and the ignorant taking them for real crystal gems run after them. Mahamati, they are no more than water-bubbles, they are not gems, nor are they not-gems, because of their being so comprehended [by one party] and being not so comprehended [by another] - In the same manner, Mahamati, those whose minds are impressed by the habit-energy of the philosophical views and discriminations will regard things born as non-existent and those destroyed by causation as existent.

XXXVII

Further, Mahamati, there are four kinds of Dhyanas. What are the four? They are: (1) The Dhyana practised by the ignorant, (2) the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning, (3) the Dhyana with Suchness for its object, and (4) the Dhyana of the Tathagatas.

What is meant by the Dhyana practised by the ignorant? It is the one resorted to by the Yogins exercising themselves the discipline of the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, who perceiving that there is no ego-substance, that things are characterized with individuality and generality, that the body is a shadow and a skeleton which is transient, full of suffering, and is impure, persistently cling to these notions which are regarded as just so and not otherwise, and who starting from them successively advance until they reach the cessation where there arc no thoughts. This is called the Dhyana practised by the ignorant.

Mahamati, what then is the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning? It is the one [practised by those who,] having gone beyond the egolessness of things, individuality and generality, the untenability of such ideas as self, other, and both, which are held by the philosophers, proceed to examine and follow up the meaning of the [various] aspects of the egolessness of things and the stages of Bodhisattvahood. This is the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning.

What, Mahamati, is the Dhyana with Tathata for its object? When [the Yogin recognizes that] the discrimination of the two forms of egolessness is mere imagination, and that where he establishes himself in the reality of suchness (yathabhuta) there is no rising of discrimination, I call it the Dhyana with Tathata for its object.

What, Mahamati, is the Dhyana of the Tathagata? When [the Yogin], entering upon the stage of Tathagatahood and abiding in the triple bliss which characterizes self-realization attained by noble wisdom, devotes himself, for the sake of all beings to the [accomplishment of] incomprehensible works, I call it the Dhyana of the Tathagatas. Therefore, it is said:

There are the Dhyana for the examination of meaning, the Dhyana practised by the ignorant, the Dhyana with Tathata for its object, and the pure Dhyana of the Tathagata.

The Yogin, while in the exercise, sees the form of the sun or the moon, or something looking like a lotus, or the underworld, or various forms like sky, fire, etc.

All these appearances lead him to the way of the philosophers; they throw him down into the state of Sravakahood, into the realm of the Pratyekabuddhas.

When all these are tossed aside and there is a state of imagelessness, then a condition in conformity with Tathata presents itself; and the Buddhas will come together from all their countries and with their shining hands will stroke the head of this benefactor.

LXVIII

At the time, Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva asked the Blessed One to explain concerning the deep-seated attachment to the existence of all things and the way of emancipation, saying: Pray tell me, Blessed One, pray tell me Tathagata, Arhat, Fully-Enlightened One, concerning the characteristics of our deep attachment to existence and of our detachment from it.

When I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas understand well the distinction between attachment and detachment, we shall know what is the skilful means concerning them, and shall no more become attached to words according to which we grasp meaning.

When we understand well what is meant by attachment to the existence of all things and the detachment from them we shall destroy our discrimination of words and letters; and, by means of our wisdom (buddhi), enter into all the Buddha-lands and assemblies; be well stamped with the stamp of the powers, the self-control, the psychic faculties, and the Dharanis; and, well furnished with the wisdom (buddhi) in the ten inexhaustible vows, and shining with varieties of rays pertaining to the Transformation Body, behave ourselves with effortlessness like the moon, the sun, the jewel, and the elements; and hold such views at every stage as are free from all the signs of self-discrimination; and, seeing that all things are like a dream, like Maya, etc., [shall be able to] enter the stage and abode of Buddhahood, and deliver discourses on the Dharma in the world of all beings and in accordance with their needs, and free them from the dualistic notion of being and non-being in the contemplation of all things which are like a dream and Maya, and free them also from the false discrimination of birth and destruction; and, finally, [shall be able to] establish ourselves where there is a revulsion at the deepest recesses [of our consciousness], which is more than words [Can express].

Said the Blessed One: Well said, well said, Mahamati! Listen well to me then, Mahamati, and reflect well within yourself; I will tell you.

Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva: said: Certainly, I will, Blessed One; and gave ear to the Blessed One.

The Blessed One said to him thus: Mahamati, immeasurable is our deep-seated attachment to the existence of all things the significance of which we try to understand with words. For instance, there are the deep-seated attachments to signs of individuality, to causation, to the notion of being and non-being, to the discrimination of birth and no-birth, to the discrimination of cessation and no-cessation, to the discrimination of vehicle and no-vehicle, of Samskrita and Asamskrita, of the characteristics of the stages and no-stages. There is the attachment to discrimination itself, and to that arising from enlightenment the attachment to the discrimination of being and non-being on which the philosophers are so dependent, and the attachment to the triple vehicle and the one vehicle, which they discriminate.

These and others, Mahamati, are the deep-seated attachments to their discriminations cherished by the ignorant and simple-minded. Tenaciously attaching themselves to these, the ignorant and simple-minded go on ever discriminating like the silkworms, which, with their own thread of discrimination and attachment, enwrap not only themselves but others and are charmed with the thread; and thus they are ever tenaciously attached to the notions of existence and non-existence. [But really] Mahamati, there are no signs here of deep-seated attachment or detachment. All things are to be seen as abiding in Solitude where there is no evolving of discrimination. Mahamati, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva should have his abode where he can see all things from the viewpoint of Solitude.

Further, Mahamati, when the existence and nonexistence of the external world are understood to be due to the seeing of the Mind itself in these signs, [the Bodhisattva] can enter upon the state of imagelessness where Mind-only is, and [there] see into the Solitude which underlies the discrimination of all things as being and non-being, and the deep-seated attachments resulting therefrom. This being so, there are in all things no signs of a deep-rooted attachment or of detachment. Here Mahamati, is nobody in bondage, nobody in emancipation, except those who by reason of their perverted wisdom recognize bondage and emancipation. Why? Because in all things neither being nor non-being is to be taken hold of.

Further, Mahamati, there are three attachments deep-seated in the minds of the ignorant and simple-minded. They are greed, anger, and folly; and thus there is desire which is procreative and is accompanied by joy and greed; closely attached to this there takes place a succession of births in the [five] paths. Thus there are the five paths of existence for all beings who are found closely attached [to greed, anger, and folly]. When one is cut off from this attachment, no signs will be seen indicative of attachment or of non-attachment.


3:5

The Ryogonkyo, or Surangama Sutra (résumé) 楞厳経

V

THE RYOGONKYO, OR SURANGAMA SUTRA[1]

There are in the Chinese Tripitaka two sutras bearing the title, "Surangama", but they are entirely different in contents. The first one was translated into Chinese by

[1. "Sutra of Heroic Deed".]

Kumarajiva between 402-412 and consists of two fascicles. The second one in ten fascicles was translated by Paramiti in 705, and this is the one used by the Zen and also by the Shingon. The reason why it is used by the Shingon is because it contains the description of a mandala and a mantram called "Sitatarapatala" (white umbrella), the recitation of which, while practising the Samadhi, is supposed to help the Yogin, as the Buddhas and gods will guard him from the intrusion of the evil spirits. But the general trend of thought as followed in this sutra is Zen rather than Shingon. It was quite natural that all the commentaries of it belong to the Zen school. The terms used here are somewhat unusual--especially those describing the Mind. The sutra is perhaps one of the later Mahayana works developed in India. It treats of highly abstruse subjects. Below is a synopsis of it.

1. The sutra opens with Ananda's adventure with an enchantress called Matanga who, by her magic charm, entices him to her abode. The Buddha, seeing this with his supernatural sight, sends Manjusri to save him and bring him back to the Buddha. Ananda is thoroughly penitent and wishes to be further instructed in the art of controlling the mind. The Buddha tells him that all spiritual discipline must grow out of a sincere heart and that much learning has no practical value in life, especially when one's religious experience is concerned. Ananda had enough learning, but no Samadhi to stand against the influence of a sorceress.

2. The reason why we go through the eternal cycle of birth and death and suffer ills incident to it is our ignorance as to the source of birth and death, that is, because Mind-essence is forgotten in the midst of causal nexus which governs this world of particular objects.

This Mind-essence is variously characterized as something original, mysterious, mysteriously bright, illumining, true, perfect, clear as a jewel, etc. It is not to be confused with our empirical mind, for it is not an object of intellectual discrimination.

Ananda is asked to locate this Mind-essence. But, as his mind moves along the line of our relative experience, he fails to give a satisfactory answer. He pursues objective events which are subject to birth and death; he never reflects within himself to try to find the Mind bright and illumining which makes all his experiences possible.

3. Even the Bodhisattva cannot pick up this mysteriously transparent Essence out of a world of individual things. He cannot demonstrate its reality by means of his discerning intelligence. It is not there. But that the Essence is there is evident from the fact that the eye sees, the ear hears, and the mind thinks. Only it is not discoverable as an individual object or idea, objective or subjective; for it has no existence in the way we talk of a tree or a sun, of a virtue or a thought. On he other hand, all these objects and thoughts are in

t" the Mind-essence, true and original and mysteriously bright. Our body and mind is possible only when thought of in connection with it.

4. Because since the beginningless past we are running after objects, not knowing where our Self is, we lose track of the Original Mind and are tormented all the time by the threatening objective world, regarding it as good or bad, true or false, agreeable or disagreeable. We are thus slaves of things and circumstances. The Buddha advises that our real position ought to be exactly the other way. Let things follow us and wait our commands. Let the true Self give directions in all our dealings with the world. Then we shall all be Tathagatas. Our body and mind will retain its original virtue bright and shining. While not moving away from this seat of enlightenment, we shall make all the worlds in the ten quarters reveal themselves even at the tip of a hair.

5. Manjusri is Manjusri; he is absolute as he is; he is neither to be asserted nor to be negated. All assertions and negations start from the truth of this absolute identity, and this is no other than the originally illuminating Mind-essence. Based on this Essence, all the conditions that make up this world of the senses are fulfilled: we see, we hear, we feel, we learn, and we think.

6. Causation belongs to a world of opposites. It cannot be applied to the originally bright and illumining Essence. Nor can one ascribe to it "spontaneous activity", for this also presupposes the existence of an individual concrete substance of which it is an attribute. If the Essence is anything of which we can make any statements either affirmative or negative, it is no more the Essence. It is independent of all forms and ideas, and yet we cannot speak of it as not dependent on them. It is absolute Emptiness, sunyata, and for this very reason all things are possible in it.

7. The world including the mind is divisible into five Skandha (aggregates), six Pravesha (entrances), twelve Ayatana (seats), and eighteen Dhatu (kingdoms). They all come into existence when conditions are matured, and disappear when they cease. All these existences and conditions take place illusively in the Tathagata-garbha which is another name for the Mind-essence. It is the latter alone that eternally abides as Suchness bright, illumining, all-pervading, and immovable. In this Essence of eternal truth there is indeed neither going nor coming, neither becoming confused nor being enlightened, neither dying nor being born; it is absolutely unattainable and unexplainable by the intellect, for it lies beyond all the categories of thought.

8. The Tathagata-garbha is in itself thoroughly pure and all-pervading, and in it this formula holds: form is emptiness and emptiness is form. Rupam sunyata, sunyateva rupam. This being so, the Essence which is the Tathagata-garbha reveals itself in accordance with thoughts and dispositions of all beings, in response to their infinitely-varied degrees of knowledge, and also to their karma. In spite of its being involved in the evolution of a world of multiplicities, the Essence in itself never loses its original purity, brilliance .or emptiness, all of which terms are synonymous.

9. The knowledge of an objective world does not come from objects, nor from the senses; nor is it mere accident; nor is it an illusion. A combination of the several conditions or factors is necessary to produce the knowledge. But mere combination is not enough. This combination must take place in the originally pure, bright, illuminating Essence, which is the source of knowledge.

When this is realized, all the worlds in the ten quarters including one's own existence are perceived as so many particles of dust, floating, rising, and disappearing like foam, in the vast emptiness of space which the one illuminative Mind-essence eternally pervades.

10. The question: When the Tathagata-garbha is in itself so pure and undefiled, how is it possible that we have this world of mountains, rivers, and all other composite forms which are subject to constant changes and transformations?

This doubt comes from not understanding the absolute nature of the purity of the Essence. For by purity is not meant relative purity, which is only possible by establishing a dualistic conception of reality. The Essence is neither in the world nor of the world, nor is it outside the world. Therefore the question, which is based on a dualistic interpretation of reality, is altogether irrelevant when applied to the nature of the Essence and its relation to the world.

Hence this remarkable statement: The Tathagata-garbha, which is mysteriously bright and illuminating as the Mind-Essence, is neither to be identified nor not to be identified [with the world]; it is at once this and not-this.

11. Yajnadatta, a citizen of Sravasti, one morning looked into the mirror and found there a face with the most charming features. He thought his own head disappeared and thereby went crazy. This story is used to illustrate the stupidity of clinging to relative knowledge which rises from the opposition of subject and object. As we cling to it as having absolute value, a world of topsyturviness comes to extend before us. The original bright and charming face is possessed by every one of us only when we realize the fact by reflecting within ourselves, instead of running after unrealities.

12. Now Ananda wants to know how to get into the palatial mansion, which he is told to be his own. He is not in possession of the key wherewith he can open the entrance door. The Buddha teaches him in this way. There are two methods to effect the entrance, both of which being complementary must be practised conjointly. The one is Samatha and the other Vipasyana. Samatha means "tranquillization" and vipasyana "contemplation".

By Samatha the world of forms is shut out of one's consciousness so that an approach is prepared for the realization of the final stage of enlightenment. When one's mind is full of confusion and distraction, it is no fit organ for contemplation. By Vipasyana is meant that the Yogin is first to awaken the desire for enlightenment, to be firmly determined in living the life of Bodhisattvahood, and to have an illuminating idea as regards the source of the evil passions which are always ready to assert themselves in the Tathagata-garbha.

13. When this source is penetrated by means of Prajna, the entrance is effected to the inner sanctuary, where all the six senses are merged in one. Let the Prajna penetration enter through the auditory sense as was the case with Kwannon Bosatsu, and the distinctions of the six senses will thereby be effaced; that is to say, there will then take place an experience called "perfect interfusion". The car not only hears but sees, smells, and feels. All the barriers between the Sensory functions are removed, and there is a perfect interfusion running between them; each Vijnana then functions for the others.

The Buddha tells Rahula to strike the bell and asks the assembly what they hear. They all say that they hear the bell. The bell is struck again, and they again say that there is a sound which they hear; and that when the bell ceases to ring there is no sound. This questioning and answering .is repeated for a few times, and finally the Buddha declares that they are all wrong, for they are just pursuing what does not properly belong to them, forgetting altogether their inner Essence which functions through those objective mediums or conditions. The Essence is to be grasped and riot the hearing, nor the sound. To take the latter for reality is the result of confused mentality. By the practice of Vipasyana this is to be wiped off so that the Mind-essence is always recognized in all the functions of an empirical mind as- well as in all the phenomena of the so-called objective world. By thus taking hold of the Mind-essence, there is a "perfect interfusion" of all the six Vijnanas, which constitutes enlightenment.

14. The root of birth and death is in the six Vijnanas and what makes one come to the realization of perfect interfusion is also in the six Vijnanas. To seek enlightenment or emancipation or Nirvana is not to make it something separate from or independent of those particularizing agents called senses. If it is sought outside them, it nowhere exists, or rather it becomes one of particular objects and ceases to be what in itself it is. This is why the unattainability of Sunyata is so much talked about in all the Mahayana sutras.

In the true Essence there is neither samskrita (created) nor asamskrita (uncreated); they are like Maya or flowers born of hallucination. When you attempt to manifest what is true by means of what is erroneous, you make both untrue. When you endeavour to explain object by subject and subject by object, you create a world of an endless series of opposites, and nothing real is grasped. To experience perfect interfusion, let all the opposites, or knots as they are called, be dissolved and a release takes place. But when there is anywhere any clinging of any sort, and an ego-mind is asserted, the Essence is no more there, the mysterious Lotus fades.

15. The Buddha then makes some of the principal persons in the assembly relate their experience of perfect interfusion. That of Kwannon among them is regarded as most remarkable. His comes from the auditory sense as his name implies. It leads him up to the enlightened state of consciousness attained by all the Buddhas, and he is now Love incarnate. But at the same time he identifies himself with all beings in the six paths of existence whereby he knows all their inner feelings and aspirations reaching up towards the love of the Buddha. Kwannon is thus able to reveal himself anywhere his help is needed, or to any being who hears him. The whole content of the Kwannon sutra is here fully confirmed.

16. Learning is not of much avail in the study of Buddhism as is proved by the case of Amanda, who being enticed by the magical charm of a courtesan was about to commit one of the gravest offences. In the practice of Samadhi the control of mind is most needed., which is Sila (moral precept). Sila consists in doing away with the sexual impulse, the impulse to kill living beings, the impulse to take things not belonging to oneself, and the desire to eat meat. When these impulses are kept successfully under restraint, one can really practise meditation from which Prajna grows; and it is Prajna that leads one to the Essence when the perfect interfusion of all the six Vijnanas is experienced.

17. We here come to the esoteric part of the Surangama Sutra where the establishment of the mandala is described, together with the mantram. In this mandala the Samadhi is practised for three weeks or for one hundred days, at the end of which those richly endowed may be able to realize Srotapannahood.

18. Next follows the description of more than fifty stages of attainment leading to final enlightenment and Nirvana; then effects of various karma by which beings undergo several forms of torture in hell are explained; then the causes are given by which beings are transformed into varieties of evil spirits and of beast forms. They, however, come back to the human world when all their sins are expiated. There are beings who turn into ascetics or heavenly beings.

19. While disciplining himself in meditation the Yogin is liable to be visited by all kinds of evil beings whereby he is . constantly assailed by hallucinations of various natures. These are all due to highly-accentuated nervous derangements, and the Yogin is advised to guard himself against them.

When the Yogin has all these mental disturbances well under control, his mind acquires a state of tranquillity in which his consciousness retains its identity through his waking and sleeping hours. The modern psychologist would say that he is no more troubled with ideas which are buried, deeply repressed, in his unconsciousness; in other words, he has no dreams. His mental life is thoroughly clear and calm like the blue sky where there are no threatening clouds. The world with its expansion of earth, its towering mountains, its surging waves, its meandering rivers, and with its infinitely variegated colours and forms is serenely reflected in the mind-mirror of the Yogin. The mirror accepts them all and yet there are no traces or stains left in it-just one Essence bright and illuminating. The source of birth and death is plainly revealed here. The Yogin knows where he is; he is emancipated.

20. But this is not yet all. The Yogin must be philosophically trained with all his experiences and intuitions to have a clear, logical, penetrating understanding of the Essence. When this is properly directed, he will have no more confused ideas introduced by misguided philosophers. Along with the training in Samatha, the cultivation of Vipasyana is to be greatly encouraged.



「七観音」経典集―現代語訳付き | 伊藤 丈 2012

https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/4804613307/

現代語訳がありがたい! 「伊藤丈著 「七観音」経典集 現代語訳付き」 ( 宗教 ) - 忠さんの徒然草 - Yahoo!ブログ

https://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/tzhosono/53290550.html?__ysp=5aaC5oSP6Lyq6ZmA576F5bC857aTIOiosw%3D%3D

一言で言うと観音様のお経の本です。



実は、先日或る方がブログで「十一面観世音菩薩陀羅尼経の現代語訳」を試みられて居られた。

それを拝見していて、ああ、こう言う現代語にして頂けると多少でも、お経に何が言われているのかが判るかも知れないと思い、検索してみたら、この本が有ることが判った。幸いにも図書館に在ったので借りて見ました。

漢文にふりがなが付き、読み下し文があり、さらに丁寧な現代語訳までついているという、素人にはとてもありがたい本です。

そして先日の人間ドックの合間合間に、(と言っても3~4時間ほどの読書時間は有った気がする)読ませて頂いた。

読むと言うよりも、さっと眺めて、ああ、この仏様はこういう誓願をされて居らっしゃったのかという程度の事で、余りしっかりと読めたわけでもなく、まして深い意味までの理解はとてもとても・・・無理でした。


観音様も大勢いらっしゃるが、この本では、台密(天台宗)の六観音様と東密(真言宗)の六観音様で定義が違う方が居るので計七観音様としている。
何れも六道輪廻の夫々の世界において救ってくださる。


「はじめに」で、その辺の事を書かれているが、忠さんが理解した範囲では次のような事らしい。

聖観音→地獄道(東密)餓鬼道(台密)を救う
千手観音→餓鬼道(東密)地獄道(台密)を救う
馬頭観音→畜生道を救う
十一面観音→阿修羅道を救う
准胝観音(東密)→人道を救う
不空絹索観音(台密)→人道を救う
如意輪観音→天道を救う

イメージ 1
出版社の大法輪閣の紹介では
観音信仰の原点、七観音の経典を本邦初訳で紹介
七観音の誓願・威神力・真言はもとより、密教の源流を示す曼荼羅や護摩の古型、千手観音の各手の功徳等を掲載。総ルビ付きの漢訳文は読誦に、気鋭の学者による訓読・現代語訳は仏教漢文を学ぶにも好適。
著者 
伊藤丈 大正大学大学院博士課程修了
著書 「観音経辞典」「仏教漢文入門」「増上寺三大蔵経総目録」など


目次
観音経偈
請観音経
千手観音大悲心陀羅尼経
十一面観世音菩薩陀羅尼経
准提陀羅尼経
不空羂索呪心経
如意輪陀羅尼神呪経
延命十句観音経


何時ものようにいくつかの文を・・で引用させて頂きますが、引用と言うよりもポイントを少しだけと言う感じかな。

   七観音の真言(カナ読みだけを引用します。音の切り方は?ですが)
観自在菩薩呪・オン ア ロ リ キャ ソワカ
千手観音呪・オン バザラ ダ ラマ キリク
十一面観音呪・オン ロ ケイ ジンバラ キリク
         ・オン マカ キャロニキャ ソワカ
准提観音呪・オン シャレイ ソレイ ソンデイ ソワカ
馬頭観世音呪・オン ア ミリ ト ドハン バ ウンハッタ ソワカ
不空羂索観音呪・オン ハンドマ ダラ アボキャジャ ヤデイ ソロソロ ソワカ
如意輪観音呪・オン ハンドメイシン ダマニ ジンバラ ウン

観音経偈  から
・・この菩薩は正観自在菩薩また聖観世音菩薩と名づけられ、千手観音、十一面観音、如意輪観音など、特殊な観音を生ずるに至った根本総体で、六観音、七観音の第一に数えられる。

・・(各ページの上四分の一にルビ付きの漢文で読誦できる。読みやすい。その下の部分に訓読。その後に現代語訳が述べられている。以下の章もおなじ・・)

請観音経から
・・「請観世音菩薩消伏毒害陀羅尼呪経」は、私たちが現実に遭遇するあらゆる悪疫、あらゆる災厄、あらゆる痛苦を除き、吉祥を招かんと願う時、受持し読誦する経典である。

・・観世音菩薩の名号とこの陀羅尼呪を一たび、ないし七たび誦念すれば、身心の病は無くなり、いかなる境遇に陥ろうとも、はたまたどのような迫害に遭おうとも、たちまちその苦境から脱出できる・・・

・・次に仏陀は、大吉祥六字章句救苦(医王無上)神呪を説き、観世音菩薩の名号を称えて三宝に帰依し、三たびわが名とこの神呪を誦えるなら・・その苦難から抜け出られる。

・・(この他にもいくつかの呪を説かれる)

千手観音大悲心陀羅尼経  から
・・「千手千眼観世音菩薩広大円満無礙大悲心陀羅尼経」という。千手千眼とは、この観世音菩薩が有する四十手を、私たちの流転輪廻する生死の世界を25種に分けたものに乗じた数を言い、千眼は四十手のそれぞれの手の平に一個ずつある眼を同様に数えたものである。千は無量、円満の意味で、あらゆる人びとの願いを叶え、苦しみから救ってやまない大慈悲心を表現する。

・・若しもろもろの人天の、大悲心呪を誦持すれば、15種の善生を得、15種の悪死を受けざるなり。(この一つ一つ30種の功徳が書いてある。)

・・禅宗の「大悲心陀羅尼」を別に掲載

・・この、「なむからたんのうとらやーやー」が千手観音様とは知らずに、一頃毎晩称えて居たことがある。そして野口善敬老師の「千手経」と「大悲経」の研究の副題が有る「ナムカラタンノーの世界」を買ったが、難しくて手つかずだった。

十一面観世音菩薩陀羅尼経  から
・・「仏説十一面観世音菩薩随願即得陀羅尼経」

・・主に六道中の修羅道、つまり戦闘や口論などの争いごとに関わった者が堕ちる世界を化道する観音である。現代流に言えば、常に闘争心や猜疑心を懐き、好んで乱を構えようとする妄念に囚われた人たちを、その苦しみから救ってくださる観音である。

・・十面は前の三面は慈悲の相、向かって右の三面を忿怒の相、左の三面を狗のような牙を上に向けて出した相、そして真後ろが大笑した面からなっており、その手は二臂・四臂・八臂など種々ある。

准提陀羅尼経  から
・・仏説七倶胝仏母心大准提陀羅尼経  
・・准提観音はまた准提仏母・七倶胝仏母ともいい、准提は清浄という意味である。七倶胝とは七億の事で、徳の広大さを示す。この観音はもともと女性尊であるが、真言密教では六道を教化する六観音の一つに数え、特に人間道を教化する観音で、その姿は三眼十八臂、また、八臂等で表現される。

・・准提観音は、准提法と言う修法において本尊として祀られ、除災・延命・求児・除病などの祈願成就に霊験があり・・・

・・呪「ノウマクサツタナン サンミャクサンボダクチナン クニャタ オン シャレイ ソレイ ソンデイ ソワカ」

  馬頭観世音菩薩  から
・・馬頭観音を本尊に頂く寺院では、その読誦経典には「観音経」が用いられ・・

・・馬頭菩薩、馬頭大士、馬頭明王の別名を持つ。馬頭観音は大忿怒形を現わし、大威日輪と成って衆生の心の闇を照らし、苦悩を断つのを本願としている。

・・この観音は馬が食物を食べ尽くすように、一切衆生の煩悩をすべて滅してしまうところから、多くの功徳が有るとされ、また頭部に馬頭を戴くので、俗に牛馬の守り本尊として崇められてきた。


不空羂索呪心経  から
・・不空羂索観世音菩薩は略して不空羂索観音と言い、・・また、不空王観世音菩薩、不空広大明王観世音菩薩、不空悉地王観世音菩薩、不空羂索菩薩とも称される。

・・不空羂索とは、慈悲の羂索をもって、苦界に沈淪する衆生を救いあげ、その心願を叶えること空しからざるゆえに、このように名づけられるのである。

・・この菩薩の像容は一面四臂・三面四臂・三面六臂・一面八臂・三面十臂など諸種あり・・

・・月の八日に於いて、専心に斎戒して余語を雑えず、この不空羂索呪心を七遍すれば、かの人は現身に、20種の殊勝なる利益を得ん。(20の功徳の説明あり

・・命終に臨む時、の八法を説く(安らかに命終わり浄土に往生する)(他にもいくつかの呪や法が説かれている)

如意輪陀羅尼神呪経  から
・・如意宝珠と宝輪で衆生の苦しみを救い、その求めるところの願いを成就させる菩薩を、如意輪観音・・は、如意輪菩薩、如意輪王菩薩の異名があり、形像は、二臂・四臂・六臂・八臂・十臂・十二臂などの別がある。

・・本経の初品の身呪(根本呪)心呪(心真言・大心陀羅尼)心中心呪(心中心真言・小心陀羅尼)は、(聖)如意輪観音の陀羅尼であり、この観音に祈れば、延寿・安産等が叶えられると言われる。

・・観世音菩薩秘密藏如意輪陀羅尼神呪経・・除破一切悪業陀羅尼品第一・観世音菩薩秘密藏一切愛楽法第二・観世音陀羅尼和阿伽陀薬法令人愛楽品第三・観世音如意輪含薬品第四・観世音心輪眼薬品第五・観世音火唵陀羅尼薬品第六からなる


延命十句観音経  から
・・白隠は「延命十句経霊験記」を著わした。この霊験記が世に出たことで、十句より成る「延命十句観音経」は流布し、観音信仰が一層高まり、広まりを見せたことは十分考えられる。延命の二字は、白隠が「十句観音経」に冠したといわれる。


禅宗の陀羅尼

 著者名等  木村俊彦/著  ≪再検索≫

 著者名等  竹中智泰/著  ≪再検索≫

 出版者   大東出版社

 出版年   1998.02

 大きさ等  21cm 195p

 NDC分類 188.83

 件名    禅宗  ≪再検索≫

 件名    陀羅尼  ≪再検索≫

 要旨    禅宗(臨済宗・曹洞宗・黄檗宗)で日常的に読誦される『楞厳呪』や『大悲呪』などの陀

羅尼を、学問的にサンスクリット語から分りやすく翻訳し、解説する。十種を超える陀羅

尼を収録。

 目次    楞厳呪;却温神呪;折水偈;般若心経の陀羅尼;消災呪;仏頂尊勝陀羅尼大悲呪;施餓

鬼の真言陀羅尼

 ISBN等 4-500-00639-7



投稿者 もんたん VINE メンバー 投稿日 2015/4/11
Amazonで購入
ローマ字表記のサンスクリット原文が載っているので、諸仏の名の本来の意味までわかり、真言の正しい発音もわかります。
コメント  15人のお客様がこれが役に立ったと考えています. このレビューは参考になりましたか?  はいいいえ  違反を報告
投稿者 カスタマー 投稿日 2005/9/14
Amazonで購入
 真言陀羅尼とその和訳や註解を詳しく知りたい人におすすめです。目次を紹介すると「第一部が
大悲心陀羅尼、
消災呪、
仏頂呪
般若経のダラニ、
りょう厳呪、
観音部真言陀羅尼(七観音+白衣観音+六字陀羅尼+観音懺法)、
宝経印陀羅尼、
阿弥陀如来陀羅尼、
仁王般若経陀羅尼、
廻向輪陀羅尼、
如意輪根本陀羅尼、
大金剛輪陀羅尼、
金剛寿命陀羅尼、
讃歎、
十地のダラニと孔雀明王呪、
十八道真言、
諸尊真言(15如来、14菩薩、8明王、18天部)」
で全18章。

第二部が「日本の真言、大随求ダラニ、悔過法、修行者の一日、護摩法、ヴェーダより仏教へ、百万塔陀羅尼、如来心陀羅尼、四十二字門、研究方法と参考文献」の全10章です。諸尊真言は「印と真言の本」や「仏尊の事典」にのっているものとだいたい同じです。

鈴木大拙全集 第5巻 般若経の哲学と宗教.華厳の研究.金剛経の禅.楞伽経.楞伽経

研究序論

 出版者   岩波書店

 出版年   1968.9

 大きさ等  22cm 559p

国訳一切経印度撰述部 論集部 2

 版情報   改訂版

 出版者   大東出版社

 出版年   1977.

 大きさ等  22cm 4,398p

 注記    初版:昭和9年刊

 NDC分類 183

 件名    仏典  ≪再検索≫

 内容    内容:阿毘曇甘露味論 水野弘元/訳. 入阿毘達磨論 水野弘元/訳. 大乗法界無差

別論 泉芳▼C4FB▲/訳. 大乗成業論 泉芳▼C4FB▲/訳. 廻諍論 池田澄

達・遠藤二平/訳. 如実論反質難品 中野義照/訳. 大乗宝要義論 中野義照/訳.

 那先比企経 干潟竜祥/訳. 提婆菩薩破楞伽経中外道小乗四宗論 中野義照/訳. 

提婆菩薩破楞伽経中外道小乗涅槃論 中野義照/訳. 尼乾子問無我義経 中野義照/訳

新纂大日本続蔵経 第17巻

 出版者   国書刊行会

 出版年   1977.5

 大きさ等  27cm 927p

 注記    監修:西義雄,玉城康四郎

 NDC分類 183

 件名    仏典  ≪再検索≫

 内容    内容:入楞伽経心玄義(法蔵撰) 大乗入楞伽経註 10巻(宝臣述) 楞伽経註〔巻2

及巻5等不完〕(智巌撰) 楞伽経疏〔巻中不完〕,楞伽経通儀 6巻(善月述) 楞伽

経集註 4巻(正受集記) 楞伽経纂 4巻(楊彦国纂) 観楞伽経記8巻(徳清筆記)

 楞伽補遺(徳清撰) 楞伽経玄義(智旭撰述) 楞伽経義疏 9巻(智旭疏義) 楞伽

経宗通 8巻(曽鳳儀宗通) 楞伽経合轍 8巻(通潤述)

 書誌番号  3-0190001118


新纂大日本続蔵経 第18巻

 出版者   国書刊行会

 出版年   1977.5

 大きさ等  27cm 934p

 注記    監修:西義雄,玉城康四郎

 NDC分類 183

 件名    仏典  ≪再検索≫

 内容    内容:楞伽経参訂疏 8巻(広莫識) 楞伽経精解評林(焦〔コウ〕纂) 楞伽経心印 

8巻(〔カン〕是疏) 注維摩経 10巻(僧肇註) 維摩経義記 8巻(慧遠撰) 維

摩経玄疏 6巻(智▼D4A1▲撰) 維摩経文疏 28巻(智▼D4A1▲撰) 維摩

経略疏 10巻(智▼D4A1▲説湛然略) 維摩経疏記 3巻(湛然述)

 書誌番号  3-0190001119


新 国訳大蔵経 如来蔵・唯識部 2 楞伽経

 出版者   大蔵出版

 出版年   2015.12

 大きさ等  23cm 422p

 NDC分類 183

 件名    経典  ≪再検索≫

 要旨    初期禅宗以来、中国・日本で重要視された『四巻楞伽』。しかし多岐にわたる思想内容と

曖昧な表現に加え、梵文の語順のままに漢語を配列した特殊な訳文が頻出するこの漢訳経

典を、漢文脈のみから理解することは甚だ困難であった。本書は、梵語原典・チベット語

訳・他の漢訳との厳密な比較対照を踏まえて、難解きわまりない経文の論旨を丹念に読み

解いた、待望の訳註書である。

 目次    楞伽阿跋多羅宝経(序分(通序;別序;偈問;百八問;偈答 ほか));正宗分(説識異

外分(識の特質と生住滅);二七性心分(ものの本性とものの見方の心髄―七種の自性と

七種の第一義);邪正見異分(小乗・外教の因果論と大乗の唯心の理);識転不壊分(ア

ーラヤ識と七転識(1));別説識真分(アーラヤ識と七転識(2) ほか))

 内容    インド仏教思想の宝庫でありながら、禅仏教の「不立文字・教外別伝」の拠り所となった

経典。『四巻楞伽』の全貌!

 ISBN等 4-8043-8051-5

 ISBN等 978-4-8043-8051-3


IRIZ:出版物(花園大学国際禅学研究所)

http://iriz.hanazono.ac.jp/frame/book_f1b.html

ホーム > 出版物 > 研究報告 > 『研究報告 第2冊』


出版物  



研究報告 


 『研究報告 第2冊』

 常盤義伸 「『ランカーに入る』 — 梵文入楞伽経の全訳と研究 — 」

『研究報告』第2冊(表紙)


判 型 : B5大判

頁 数 : 376頁(本文・研究)

211頁(註)

ISBN : 4-938796-15-5

発行年月日 : 1994年12月1日

発行者 : 花園大学国際禅学研究所

〔非売品〕


 〔 目 次 〕

緒言 (柳田 聖山)


まえがき


第1章 ラーヴァナによる勧請


第2章 [世尊がランカーに入って説かれた]全ての教え三万六千の集まり


第3章 無常性


第4章 [涅槃すなわち苦の滅の]現証


第5章 如来が常住でも無常でもいけない


第6章 刹那性


第7章 化作するもの


第8章 肉食[は止めるべきである]


第9章 記憶すべき呪句


研究 大乗経典『ランカーに入る』十三講


【別巻】

 訳注

 サンスクリット資料



参考:

円覚経』(えんがくきょう)、正式名称『大方広円覚修多羅了義経』(Mahāvaipulya pūrṇabuddhasūtra prassanārtha sūtra, だいほうこうえんがくしゅたらりょうぎぎょう)は、の仏陀多羅訳とされる。1巻。見《佛書解說大辭典》第一卷281頁。

仏教中国で撰述された経典疑経または偽経)の一つで、「大円覚心」を得るための方法を説く。

沿革

7世紀末より8世紀初めにかけての成立であると考えられているが、初期の禅宗の灯史である『伝法宝紀』(でんほうぼうき、713年)に早くも引用されている。その後、圭峰宗密(780年 - 841年)により大々的に喧伝され、また所依とされるようになった。

さらに後世、同じく中国撰述経典である『楞厳経』(りょうごんきょう、具名『大仏頂如来密印修証了義諸菩薩万行首楞厳経』)と共に「教禅一致」を説く経典と見なされ、宋・元・明と時代が下がるに従って重視されるようになった。なお、道元は「教禅一致」に批判的な立場で、この二経の価値を全く否定したということが知られる。

テキスト



仏教の経典「首楞厳経(シュリョウゴンギョウ)」の漢訳と国訳が掲載されている資料を探している。 | レファレンス協同データベース

http://crd.ndl.go.jp/reference/modules/d3ndlcrdentry/index.php?page=ref_view&id=1000130361

仏教の経典「首楞厳経(シュリョウゴンギョウ)」の漢訳と国訳が掲載されている資料を探している。

回答

(Answer)

以下の資料を提供した。

『国訳大蔵経 〔経部〕 4』(国民文庫刊行会編 国民文庫刊行会 1917)

 〔解題〕p1-6「首楞厳経解題」によると、「本経は具に『大佛頂如来密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞厳経』といひ、略して『首楞厳経』と称し」とある。

 〔国訳〕p1-272「国訳首楞厳経」に国訳あり。

 〔漢訳〕p1-107「大佛頂如来密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞厳経」に漢訳あり。


『大正新修大蔵経 19 密教部』(大正新修大蔵経刊行会編 大正新修大蔵経刊行会 1963)

 p106-155「大佛頂如来密因修證了義諸菩薩萬行首楞厳経」に漢訳あり。なお、No.945はp105から始まっており、「新印大佛頂首楞厳経序」、「大佛頂如来萬行首楞厳経序」が掲載されている。


『昭和新纂国訳大蔵経 経典部 7』(名著普及会 1977)

 p245-440「首楞厳経」に国訳あり。



第一書房:国訳大蔵経

http://www.daiichishobo.co.jp/shinkan/shokai/241.html


国訳大蔵経 全31冊 


国訳大蔵経は経部14巻、論部15巻、戒律研究2巻よりなる一大仏教叢書である。厖大な一切経の中から最も基本的な経論と律蔵を選択し、それらに開題・国訳・註記・漢訳原文を付したものである。国訳に際しては総ルビを付して仏教の字句の読み方の規律を示している。

国民文庫刊行会 編

出版年 1974

復刻/各A5判

経部1~14・論部1~15 各9,500円+税

付録上12,000円+税 付録下10,000円+税

セット 本体297,500円+税

日本図書コード(セット) ISBN978-4-8042-0241-9 C3315 \297500E

経部(全14巻)

0242-6 1巻

(分売不可) 法華経三部開題・国訳無量義経・国訳妙法蓮華経・国訳仏説観普賢菩薩行法経・浄土三部経解題・国訳仏説無量寿経・国訳仏説観無量寿経・国訳仏説阿弥陀経・浄土三部経大意・漢訳原文・浄土三経校訂記

0243-3 2巻 摩訶般若波羅蜜経解題・国訳摩訶般若波羅蜜経・漢訳原文

0244-0 3巻 国訳摩訶般若波羅蜜経・大般若波羅蜜多経第十般若理趣分解題・国訳大般若波羅蜜多経第十般若理趣分・金剛般若波羅蜜経解題・国訳金剛般若波羅蜜経・仁王般若波羅蜜経解題・国訳仁王般若波羅蜜経・摩訶般若波羅蜜多心経解題・国訳摩訶般若波羅蜜多心経・勝鬘獅子吼一乗大方便方広経解題・国訳勝鬘獅子吼一乗大方便方広経・梵網経解題・国訳梵網経・漢訳原文

0245-7 

4巻

(分売不可) 大方広円覚修多羅了義経解題・国訳大方広円覚修多羅了義経・大乗入楞伽経解題・国訳大乗入楞伽経・首楞厳経解題・国訳首楞厳経・漢訳原文

0246-4 5巻 華厳経の国訳に就いて・大方広仏華厳経解題・国訳大方広仏華厳経・漢訳原文

0247-1 6巻 国訳大方広仏華厳経・漢訳原文

0248-8 7巻 国訳大方広仏華厳経・漢訳原文

0249-5 8巻 大般涅槃経開題・大般涅槃経疏釈、大般涅槃経科文・国訳大般涅槃経・漢訳原文

0250-1 9巻 国訳大般涅槃経・漢訳原文

0251-8 10 維摩詰所説経解題・国訳維摩詰所説経・大毘廬遮那成仏神変加持経解題・国訳大毘廬遮那成仏神変加持経・解深密経解題・国訳解深密経・大乗本生心地観経報恩品解題・国訳大乗本生心地観経報恩品・漢訳原文

0252-5 11 金光明最勝王経解題・国訳金光明最勝王経・過去現在因果経解題・国訳過去現在因果経・仏垂般涅槃略説教誡経解題・国訳仏垂般涅槃略説教誡経・仏説四十二章経解題・国訳仏説四十二章経・仏説尸迦羅越六方礼経玉耶経解題・国訳仏説尸迦羅越六方礼経玉耶経・諸経要集所行蔵解題・国訳諸経要集・国訳所行蔵・漢訳原文

0253-2 12 弥蘭陀王問経解題・国訳弥蘭陀王問経・法句経長老偈長老尼偈解題・国訳法句経・国訳長老偈・国訳長老尼偈

0254-9 13 仏本行集経解題・国訳仏本行集経

0255-6 14 国訳仏本行集経

論部(全15巻)

0258-7 1巻 大智度論解題・国訳大智度論

0259-4 2巻 国訳大智度論

0260-0 3巻 国訳大智度論

0261-7 4巻 国訳大智度論

0262-4 5巻 大乗起信論開題・国訳大乗起信論・大乗法界無差別論解題・国訳大乗法界無差別論・三論解題・釈僧叡序(中論)・国訳中論・釈僧筆序(百論)・国訳百論・釈僧叡序(十二門論)・品目(十二門論)・国訳十二門論・十住毘姿沙論易行品解題・国訳十住毘姿沙論易行品・無量寿経優姿提舎願生偈開題・国訳無量寿経優姿提舎願生偈・法華論開題・国訳妙法蓮華経優姿提舎・金剛頂瑜伽中発阿耨多羅三貌三菩提心論開題・国訳金剛頂瑜伽中発阿耨多羅三貌三菩提心論・菩提心論科節

0263-1 6巻 瑜伽師地論解題・国訳瑜伽師地論

0264-8 7巻 国訳瑜伽師地論

0265-5 8巻 国訳瑜伽師地論

0266-2 9巻 国訳瑜伽師地論・瑜伽論条目

0267-9 10

(分売不可) 成唯識論開題・国訳成唯識論・摂大乗論本解題・国訳摂大乗論本・摂大乗論本条目

0268-6 11 国訳阿毘達磨倶舎論序文・阿毘達磨倶舎論解題・国訳阿毘達磨倶舎論

0269-3 12 国訳阿毘達磨倶舎論

0270-9 13

(分売不可) 国訳阿毘達磨倶舎論・入阿毘達磨論解題・国訳入阿毘達磨論・十地経論解題・国訳十地経論・国訳異部宗輪論序文・異部宗輪論解題・国訳異部宗輪論・(附)結集史分派史考

0271-6 14 大品解題・小品解題・国訳大品・国訳小品

0272-3 15 成実論解題・国訳成実論・因明入正理論解題・国訳因明入正理論

0256-3 付録1 戒律研究 上

0257-0 付録2 戒律研究 下


国訳大蔵経 経部 4

 著者名等  国民文庫刊行会/編  ≪再検索≫

 出版者   第一書房

 出版年   1974

 大きさ等  22cm 869p

 注記    復刻

 NDC分類 183

 内容    内容:大方広円覚修多羅了義経解題. 国訳大方広円覚修多羅了義経ほか

 書誌番号  3-0190500464




首楞厳経 - WikiArc

http://labo.wikidharma.org/index.php/首楞厳経

首楞厳経

しゅりょうごんきょう

1.『大仏頂如来密因修証了義諸菩薩万行首楞厳経(だいぶつちょうにょらいみついんしゅしょうりょうぎしょぼさつまんぎょうしゅりょうごんきょう)』のこと。十巻。唐の般刺密帝(はらみてい)訳。疑経ともいわれる。首楞厳は梵語シューランガマ(śūraſgama)の音写で、一切事究竟堅固(いっさいじくきょうけんご)と漢訳し、三昧(さんまい)の名。『教行信証』には修行と摩障(ましょう)の関係を説くのに引用され、また第五巻に二十五聖(しょう)の円通(えんずう)が説かれてあり、その中の第二十四に大勢至菩薩念仏円通を説き明かす。 (化巻 P.453, 尊号 P.647) 


2.『首楞厳三昧経(しゅりょうごんざんまいきょう)』のこと。二巻。後秦の鳩摩羅什(くまらじゅう)訳。仏が、堅意(けんい)菩薩が菩提をすみやかに得る法を問うたのに対してこの三昧(さんまい)を説き、また舎利弗(しゃりほつ)が魔境を遠離(おんり)する道を問うたのに対して、魔境を現してこれを退治して証明せられたことを説いた経典である。 (浄土 P.576



禅宗の陀羅尼

 著者名等   木村俊彦/著  ≪再検索≫

 著者名等   竹中智泰/著  ≪再検索≫

 出版者    大東出版社

 出版年    1998.02

 大きさ等   21cm 195p

 NDC分類  188.83

 件名     禅宗  ≪再検索≫

 件名     陀羅尼  ≪再検索≫

 要旨     禅宗(臨済宗・曹洞宗・黄檗宗)で日常的に読誦される『楞厳呪』や『大悲呪』などの陀

羅尼を、学問的にサンスクリット語から分りやすく翻訳し、解説する。十種を超える陀羅

尼を収録。

 目次     楞厳呪;却温神呪;折水偈;般若心経の陀羅尼;消災呪;仏頂尊勝陀羅尼;大悲呪;施餓

鬼の真言陀羅尼

 ISBN等  4-500-00639-7

 書誌番号   3-0198015738



10. General Prayer 楞厳呪 真言
11. Prayer of the Bell 観音経?

II. THE DHARANIS 
1. Dharani of Removing Disasters 消災呪
2. Dharani of the Great Compassionate One 大悲心陀羅尼
3. Dharani of the Victorious Buddha-Crown 仏頂尊勝陀羅尼

III. THE SUTRAS 
1. The Prajnaparamita-hridaya-sutra, or Shingyo (complete) 般若心経
2. The Kwannongyo, or “Samantamukha Parivarta” (complete) 観音経
3. The Kongokyo, or Vajracchedika (the first half and extracts from the second half) 金剛経
4. The Lankavatara Sutra, or Ryogakyo (extracts) 楞伽経
5. The Ryogonkyo, or Surangama Sutra (résumé) 楞厳経


            (リンク:::::::::仏教

NAMs出版プロジェクト: 臨済録

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/03/blog-post_11.html

SUZUKI Daisetz 鈴木大拙 NHK婦人の時間 聞き手犬養道子

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/03/suzuki-daisetz-nhk.html

Manual of Zen Buddhism by D.T. Suzuki 1935 便覧:解読 

NAMs出版プロジェクト: The Sutras(禅インド関連サブインデックス)

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/05/the-sutras.html@

FROM THE CHINESE ZEN MASTERS(禅中国関連サブインデックス)

FROM THE JAPANESE ZEN MASTERS(禅日本関連サブインデックス)

http://nam-students.blogspot.jp/2017/05/from-japanese-zen-masters.html



『華厳経』『楞伽経』 (現代語訳大乗仏典) | 中村 元  2003

https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/4487732859/

楞厳呪―現代語訳と解説 | 木村 得玄 2006

https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/4393177045/

楞厳呪 現代語訳と解説

 著者名等   木村得玄/著  ≪再検索≫

 出版者    春秋社

 出版年    2006.7

 大きさ等   22cm 113p

 注記     付(27p):大佛頂首楞厳呪

 NDC分類  183.7

 要旨     楞厳呪は禅宗各派において、いろいろな儀式で使用されてきたお経(陀羅尼)である。本

書では、楞厳呪を僧侶にとっても、一般の人たちにとっても、少しでも親しみやすく、わ

かりやすいものになるように、現代語化した。

 目次     楞厳呪について;楞厳呪 現代語訳;楞厳呪 原文・サンスクリット・和訳;付録 楞厳

呪六対比

 ISBN等  4-393-17704-5

 書誌番号   3-0206054145


鈴木大拙全集〈第5巻〉般若経の哲学と宗教, 華厳の研究, 金剛経の禅, 楞伽経, 楞伽経研究序論 (1968年) | 鈴木 大拙 |本 | 通販 | Amazon

https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/B000JBEHA4/


1:10
☆☆☆☆☆☆
General Prayer 楞厳呪 真言
general prayer
一般的な祈り[1]Bhikshusによってここにすべて存在するスランガマの神秘的な式は上記のように列挙されており、ダーマーの保護者であるすべてのナガとデヴァスに捧げられているのは、また、この修道院とその周辺地区の保護者である霊的存在のすべての聖なる集会にも。
8種類の災害に様々な苦しみを抱いている3つの邪悪な道にあるすべての存在が、苦しみから解放されるように!
4倍の恩恵を受けているトリプルワールドのすべての存在がメリットに参加できるように!
国家は平和的な繁栄を続け、戦争のすべての活動は止められよう!
風が吹き、雨が季節的に降って、人々は幸せに生きよう!
エクササイズに参加している集会全体がより高い願望を大切にしてください!
キャップで10段階を越えて、そしてこれほど難しいことはありません!
この修道院は静かな生活をして、外乱から解放されるように。
そして、客や信者は信仰だけでなく、知恵と至福の中で成長します!
過去、現在、未来、そしてマハプラニナ・パラミタの十四階にあるすべての仏陀と菩薩 - マハザッタヴァにすべてを祈ります!

[1。これは、Surangama dharaniを引用した後、テキストから推測されるように、読み込まれます。]

 楞厳経
『楞厳経』巻六 訳注 - 妙心寺 (Adobe PDF)

www.myoshinji.or.jp/.../bulletion%20of%20myoshinji-school-...

楞厳経』巻六. 訳注. 教学研究委員会編. (小川太龍・野口善敬・廣田宗玄・堀. 祥岳・本 多道隆・丸毛俊宏〔五十音順〕. ) 《解説》. (一)『楞厳経』について. 『楞厳経』は、具名を『 大仏頂如来密因修証了義諸菩薩万行首楞厳経』といい、一般には略称で『首楞厳. 経』.





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